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sobota, 15 września 2018
Palermo vel Poznan
Stanislaw Barszczak, Friendly Archbishop...(part thirt) There are slaves of their faults. You must open yourself to the mercy of God, which makes you free forever. Model of this father Maksymilian Kolbe from Auschwitz and others. Envy destroys. But we live in the body and souls. Who is a real slave? One who did not have the ability to love. Love directs our eyes to others. You need to build relationships. Even if we have, say, two or more civil lawsuits (due to corruption or financial unreasonability), then we can also become free, also in prison. Let us always be guided by the virtue of wisdom, which the people can only accept, consider their possibilites. I suffered a great deal every time while listened to charges of abuse of sexual clerics. You make doubts in this matter, but without condemning anyone. Because there are civil and religious courts of further instance that are responsible for these cases. It's their business. We did not understand this well from the era of Pope Wojtyla. And I used to be mostly distracted then. Let us accept the principle: integration, understanding everyone - as a final attitude ... Christianity has given me the subject for living God. There were 60 million victims of the war of the fatherland in Russia(1941-45). Why? Alexandre Solzhenitsyn responds, because we have a forgotten God. Dominus iluminatio mea, this is my motto of life. Let's get back to the Bible. Genesis is a beautiful poem about the miracle of life. There are 6 days, the wonderful days of creation are, which should not be taken literally. God is a Person and he also matches himself. So, His Day a different of ours , and has a peak at different times. Finally, "when" he finished his job, he rested. And now he helps us on our historical time. So, our death is the ultimate hope. God created human existence. And as a beloved man, I do not ask how man came into being, but what was he made of? To the point for me, God does not exist. And more important what nature he is. As I said, he appeared in Jesus Christ, in the flesh. He showed that there is evil and suffering. But suffering doesn't exist without compassion. Jesus won a life on the cross. What is more, he has resurrected from me. Finally, God became human. But the God abandoned we are. So, the bans from the Bible with and modernist disagreement we are, as Christians we want to know a love from the whole world. Amen.
09:29, sbarszczak , CV
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piątek, 14 września 2018
God chose nation
Stanislaw Barszczak, Friendly Archbishop...(part second) I meet You in every dream. Beloved, recently I visited again the gate of the Shipyard in Gdansk. I was walking inside close to the museum of Solidarnosc. Let me start with this. In my youth, polish workers had a goal, Solidarity arose. The bell of hope went off an hour, for a better tomorrow of the Commonwealth. Though, over the years, there has been a loss of faith in faith ... But we have yet another local government election now. Let's tear our house. In order nobody would be hurt by arbitrary behavior, let us refute the stereotypes. As a further witness to the story being developed, I would like to be part of the course of our world. Here one emphasizes the redemptive value of salvation. Jesus bought us from sins. God gave a freedom that we can reasonably use it. God's way. So let us say: There is no compassion without suffering. I like to answer big and good questions. Although sometimes I am surprised by some difficulty. Christianity is changing the world. The Polish Nobel laureate Milosz once said that religion is opium for people. But Religion means that we will be judged by God Himself ... Science teaches how things arise, but science is silent according to the question of how a big-bang came. However, we are convinced that there is a goal in the mountains, of which wonders we are. We are part of humans, it justifies that we exist. If I am unable to comment on sports games or be a gardener, I would like to speak as a witness to history. How did people understand that Jesus is God over the centuries? Despite various theological statements about the divinity of Jesus, he did not call himself to be God. I am god and nothing behind me exist. He wanted to be a servant of everyone, he asked for prayer. And I recommend a prayer for me two. My mother was a Catholic who did not take any book other than her prayer book. In those days I was always bankrupt. But I never told my mother about it. The Chinese translator of my essays would say that I love my figures and stories, and weapons from all sides. And my writing is about a world, "how it is not in" My favorite introduction to the next story would be the phrase: non omnis moriar, Laetus serviam. Because more than beautiful is nothing. Start understanding it. Something paradoxical was in the beginning of the world. Something has begun with nothingness. You know, we then joined the choice of the first pair of parents. We now have a Moral, which some call a relative. Religious people commit more crimes like atheists, someone said. Atheism is the absence of faith in the world. Atheists are based on the complexity of the world. Thousand years ago, Baghdad was the center of the World, and Europe was heretical. But I am busy with God always. Two million years ago, the earth inhabited homo erectus. We now agree with the fact that we are intelligent weak species. Genes have produced adaptations over the course of a thousand years. 24 years before Jesus there was "another guy", his name Osiris in Egypt. He with Isis have ruled for hundreds of years about human fate. In the new era, humanity chose Jesus, some say that there would be "other gay" in their history. Christian of mine, aufully sorry I sometimes exaggerate. However, Jesus is no longer everything to them. Will there be one more God, we do not know. Just as we do not know how many dimensions the universe is. Here, even the nucleon string theory in the question of the beginning of the cosmos remains inadequate. The purpose of my essays was to popularize human problems, adopt people, mobilize them to individual responsibility for the world and the earth. What I write is not politics, but rather psychology. We should finally understand biblical centralization, focus on man. However, we are no longer the pepple of the universe. And we have to live with the active use of wonder of the world. In the danger of the feminisation of the world, how it should work. Today, we are dealing with global warming, magnetic anomalies, other catastrophes in the world, such as the earthquakes and floods. And at the same time societies are guided by different religions and customs. Religion shows human outlines with alterations always, I suppose. The assumptions of religion are based on cognitive mechanics, on causality and purposefulness. It is humanity that created God, religions, and not vice versa, atheists speak. Intentional agency of the world. Mind is evolving. Decision support. Physics governs on the univers. But some people need evidence for their beliefs. We might have seen other wonders like the huge building blocks on Earth, how were these stone blocks transported? And elsewhere we have the opportunity to see screw trees in the forest. There are things in the world that have not happened to us. People remain non-integrated in ghettos yet. So lobsters continue to swim around the world's oceans... Your social media has emerged now. I use this language consciously. New generations are entering these situations. I think it's necessary to raise children, learn about it. You have to prepare young people for social life. The proceedings from youth with me were very striking in this matter, like gastric hypocrisy. It is not enough to be free, freedom is something more. You have to get out of the slavery of your ego. Captivity - do the ego. And this is a sin, pope Francis said. tbc
21:15, sbarszczak , CV
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Dominus illuminatio mea
Stanislaw Barszczak, Frendly Archbishop ... On August 28, 2018, Polish Archbishop Szczepan Wesoly (born Oct. 16, 1927 in Katowice) died in Rome, a longtime auxiliary bishop of Gniezno, and an indefatigable minister of Polish Emigration. A man of faith, we understood each other perfectly, I think. He left a book of his life, which once again risen in man's moments of t world. Nim and I we believe in a better world. However, atheists immediately make him better - and that is the difference between us. The currently prevailing media are turning into systemic media. But it was God who was always first, with his grace of reconciling people, God be first. You see, at the same time I looked at another figure in the catholic church. The Cardinal of Sydney George Pell, who accuses about sins from the sixth commandment, he recently said: God is intelligent, he created the world. Surely atheists will be in heaven ... And hell, this is the place of purification and so on. And he responded to the atheists on the question of species struggle and popular Darwinism. One survives the strongest (see Random state, survival of fittiest). Is something funny about it? Probably not. I will say briefly: I could have been in hell (as a place of purification) when my mother left for a reward for her exemplary life. For in those days that were very distracting to me, in the journeys around I had brought this, there was always a vacancy chair waiting for me, especially in buses. And I did not take full advantage of this opportunity, I will tell you that...Today I have been finding another problem, some mothers write online: immediately leave my child alone, I do not allow my child to attend religion. My child can have nothing with Religion (Zitate ende). God shows us in our time as explosive and dynamic, some are thinking about. Indeed, God chose the Jews. And then the Israel State was founded in 1948. This fact is considered by some to be one of the special signs of Christ's second coming on earth (see Kpl, 27, 12 here news of a plundered country). The signs of the end are the militarization of the world, the existence of the army and pseudo-Christianity. The world has gone its way. What else, the modern world around me have changed its image. Some Germans claimed that Germany devided, this was the punishment for Auschwitz. I belong to a great political body, an economically strong European Union (Empire). I am an emotional European two. With education and upbringing, I took over the poetic form of life, one a native of Greece. I believe that everything should have its end (as final call of Auschwitz). Auschwitz und keine Ende, it sounds like Shakespeare und keine Ende. I have to say now: keinerTag begrenzt, no day is limited to the pink glasses. Since then every next day must have its worthy end. That's why, I think, Pope Francis of Argentina chose silence as the only dignified attitude during his stay, visit to the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. Am I already finished, am I the greatest Shakespeare with no end? Or rather, I expect the last salvation, that is, fulfillment of my life worthy man and his humane fate. So I think I should, therefore, describe these stories of Auschwitz in a new way, this bizarre recourse of a single SS man over a man, to exchange my essay on memory of each person individually, written by his/her name. Mr. Martin Walser wrote a book entitled n German "Jenseits der Liebe." A man who loves. Every question about a man would have to be taken to the end, zum Kentniss, to his last diagnosis, I ponder... Jesus will not let to finish the world. Many will come in my name and teach in their own way ... they will be apostasy etc. You have to be obliged to respond for errors of our (Bedurfniss), this is the sufficient task of "genug" in this era. I come to the community of nations from the original country, Poland is my country... We are believers. Atheism is absentness, lack of faith. A faith directs eyes of yours to the mountains, which get the wonders. So, I adore You, Lord, today I want to exalter Your Name. Today I want to say, thank you- and do not ask for anything, believe you. Today I am raising my hands ... All that I have to you, Golgotha ​​has been done... Christ is the center of my life. It is worth giving my will to Jesus. Lord, you have given your light. My heart sighs with gratitude to you, that's how I will disepear for the Lord. It's a great day when the king will see my face. My potter, he wants to be your vessel. Jesus, show your life in me. "Jesus did not reject this clay ..." Your love changed my heart. The Latin maxim "Laetus serviam," calling by Bishop Szczepan Wesoly, I will be happy for man, let my faith be made in the dignity of man forever. I heard a lot about Archbishop Wesoly alot before I met him personally. It was in an eternal city, at the celebration of the Holy Mass at the Polish House on Via Cassia, then on several occasions of my visits to his place of residence, in Rome, at the church of St. Stanislaw. Once I moved him through the busy streets of Rome centre, I remember. And now, surely, autumn, like the previous Spring, again we are joined, we will look again for our own way ... I meet you tbc.
17:22, sbarszczak , CV
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czwartek, 13 września 2018
Czlowiek, ktory kocha
Stanislaw Barszczak, Wierzacy Arcybiskup... 28 sierpnia 2018 roku w Rzymie zmarl Ksiadz Arcybiskup Szczepan Wesoly (ur.16 pazdziernika 1927 w Katowicach), dlugoletni biskup pomocniczy gnieznienski, i niestrudzony Duszpasterz Polskiej Emigracji. Czlowiek wiary, rozumielismy sie znakomicie. Pozostawil dzielo jego zycia, ktore nie raz jeszcze zablysnie w chwilach czlowieczych. I ja wierze w lepszy swiat, jakkolwiek ateisci od razu czynia go lepszym- i taka jest roznica. Przodujace obecnie media przeksztalcaja sie w media systemowe. Ale to wlasnie Bog byl pierwszy zawsze, z jego laska jednania ludzi (God be first). W tym samym czasie spojrzalem na inna jeszcze postac w kosciele powszechnym. Kardynal z Sydney George Pell, ktoremu przypisuja grzechy z szostego przykazania, niedawno mowil: Bog jest inteligentny, stworzyl swiat. Z pewnoscia ateisci beda w niebie... A pieklo to jest miejsce oczyszczenia. A odpowiadal ateistom w kwestii walki gatunkow i popularnego darwinizmu. Przetrwaja najsilniejsi (zob. Random state, survival of fittiest). Czy cos jest w tym zabawnego? chyba nie. Powiem krotko: Moglem byc w piekle (jako miejscu oczyszczenia), gdy mama odeszla po nagrode za jej wzorowe zycie. Albowiem w tamtych bardzo rozpraszajacych mnie dniach, w podrozach ktore przedsiebralem, zawsze jeszcze czekalo na mnie wolne miejsce, szczegolnie w autobusach. I nie skorzystalem w pelni z tej okazji, powiem wam. A dzisiaj niektore matki pisza przez internet: natychmiast zostawcie moje dziecko w spokoju, nie pozwalam, by moje dziecko uczeszczalo na religie. Moje dziecko nie moze miec nic wspolnego z Religia (Zitate ende) Pokazuje sie Boga w naszych czasach jako wybuchowego i dynamicznego. W rzeczy samej Bog wybral Zydow. A potem dopiero powstalo Panstwa Izrael w 1948 roku. Ten fakt uwazaja niektorzy za jeden z szczegolnych znakow powtornego przyjscia Chrystusa (por. Kpl, 27,12 tutaj nowa o wyniszconym kraju). Znakami konca jest militaryzacja swiata, istnienie armii i pseudochrzescijanstwa. Swiat poszedl swoja droga. Wokol mnie rowniez sady sie zmienily. Podzial Niemiec niektorzy twierdzili, to byla kara za Auschwitz. Naleze do wielkiego organu politycznego, mocnej ekonomicznie Unii Europejskiej. Jestem emocjonalnym Europejczykiem. Z edukacja i wychowaniem przejalem poetycka forme zycia, rodem z Grecji. Uwazam, iz od Auschwitz wszystko powinno miec swoj koniec. Auschwitz und keine Ende, to brzmi: jak Szekspir und keine Ende. Musze powiedziec teraz: keine Morgen begrenzt, zaden dzien ograniczony przez rozowa szybke. Odtad kazdy kolejny dzien musi miec swoj godny koniec. To dlatego wlasnie, uwazam, papiez Franciszek z Argentyny wybral milczenie, jako jedyna godna postawe w trakcie jego pobytu, wizyty w obozie Auschwitz-Birkenau. Czy ja juz jestem skonczony, czy juz jestem najwiekszym Szekspirem bez konca! Czy raczej ja oczekuje ostatniego zbawienia, czyli spelnienia mego zycia godnego czlowieka i jego humanitarnego losu. Stad uwazam powinienem wiec opisac te historie Auschwitz po swojemu na nowo, owo przedziwne znecanie sie pojedynczego esesmana nad czlowiekiem, zamienic moj esej na pamiec o kazdym czlowieku z osobna, zapisanym po imieniu. Pan Martin Walser napisal ksiazke pt. Jenseits der Liebe. Czlowiek, ktory kocha. Kazde zapytanie o czlowieka trzeba by podjac do konca, zum Kentniss, do jego ostatniego rozpoznania... Jezus nie pozwoli na koniec swiata. Wielu przyjdzie w moim imieniu i beda uczyc po swojemu...beda apostazje, odstepstwa od wiary. Trzeba miec powinnosc odpowiedzi na bledy(Bedurfniss), to wystarczajace zadanie (genug) w tej erze. Przybywam do wspolnoty narodow z oryginalnego kraju, z Polski, ojczyzny mojej, jako wierzacy, nie powiem juz inaczej. Ateizm to nieobecnosc, brak wiary. Kieruje oczy ku gorom. Dzisiaj uwielbiam Cie Panie, dzisiaj imie twe wywyzszyc chce. Dzis chce powiedziec, dziekuje- i nie prosic o nic, wierzyc Ci. Dzisiaj podnosze me rece...Wszystko, co mam zawdzieczam Tobie, na Golgocie wykonalo sie. Chrystus ma centrum byc zycia mojego. Warto poddac swa wole Jezusowi. Panie, Ty dales swe swiatlo. Me serce z wdziecznoscia spiewa Ci piesn, o tym rownez, kiedys zniknie bol. Mam zniknac dla Pana. To wspanialy dzien, w ktorym ujrze krola twarz. O moj garncarzu, Twoim naczyniem chce byc. Jezu, twe zycie przejawiaj we mnie. "Jezus nie odrzucil gliny tej..." Twa milosc me serce zmienila mnie. Lacinska maksyma "Laetus serviam," zawolanie biskupa Szczepana Wesolego, bede sluzyl z radoscia czlowiekowi, niech stanie sie moja Wiara w godnosc czlowieka na zawsze. O Ksiedzu Arcybiskupie sporo slyszalem, zanim poznalem go osobiscie. To bylo w wiecznym miescie, na celebracji Mszy swietej w Domu Polskim na via Cassia, nastepnie przy kilkunastu okazjach moich jego odwiedzin w miejscu zamieszkania Ksiedza Arcybiskupa w Rzymie, przy kosciele sw. Stanislawa. Raz przeprowadzilem go przez ruchliwa ulice, to pamietam. A teraz z pewnoscia jesien, jak ongis Wiosna, znow polaczy nas, bedziemy szukac znow wlasnych drog... Spotykam Cie Panie w kazdym moim snie. Kochani, ostatnio bywalem znow za brama Stoczni w Gdansku. I powiem tak. W mlodosci mojej ludzie mieli cel, powstala solidarnosc. Zabil dzwon nadziei na lepsze jutro Rzeczypospolitej. Przez lata nastepowala utrata wiary w wiare... Ale przed nami kolejne wybory samorzadowe. Uprzatnijmy nasz dom. Zeby nikt nie okaleczyl sie samowolnie, obalajmy stereotypy. Jako dalszy swiadek rozwijanej historii i ja chcialbym wpisac sie w bieg naszego swiata. Tutaj akcentuje odkupiencza wartosc zbawienia. Jezus nas wykupil z grzechow. Bog dal wolnosc, z ktorej mozemy rozumnie korzystac. Powiedzmy zatem: Bez cierpienia nie ma wspolczucia. Lubie odpowiadac na wielkie i dobre pytania. Choc czasami dziwie sie niektorym, niepowaznie powiem. Chrzescijanstwo zmienia swiat. Polski laureat nagrody Nobla Milosz powiedzial kiedys, mowi sie, iz Religia jest opium dla ludzi. Ale Religia sprawia to, ze bedziemy sadzeni przez Boga samego... Nauka uczy jak rzeczy powstaja, ale przemilcza Odpowiedz na pytanie jak doszlo do Bigbangu, wielkiego wybuchu. Skadinad przekonujemy sie, ze gory maja jakis cel. Jestesmy czescia rodzaju ludzkiego (the part of humans), to uzasadnia ze istniejemy. Jesli nie jestem w stanie komentowac rozgrywek sportowych, albo byc ogrodnikiem, to chcialbym przemawiac jako swiadek historii. Jak ludzie zrozumieli to, ze Jezus jest Bogiem, na przestrzeni wiekow? Pomimo roznych teologicznych stwierdzen o boskosci Jezusa, on sam nie nazywal sie z duma Bogiem. Chcial byc sluga wszystkich. I ja polecam sie waszej modlitwie. Moja matka byla katoliczka, ktora zadnej innej ksiazki nie wziela do reki poza jej modlitewnikiem. W tamtym dniach zawsze bylem bankrutem. Ale nie powiedzialem mamie tego nigdy. Chinski tlumacz moich esejow powiedzialby, ze kocham swoje figury i opowiesci, iz bronie je z wszystkich stron. A moje pisanie jest pisaniem o tym, "jak nie jest." Moim ulubionym zdaniem wstepnym do kolejnej historii bylaby fraza: non omnis moriar, Laetus serviam. Bo wiecej jak piekno jest nic. Zacznijcie to rozumiec. Cos paradoksalnego bylo juz na poczatku swiata. Cos sie zaczelo z nicosci. Przystalismy nastepnie na wybor pierwszej pary rodzicow. Mamy teraz Moralnosc, ktora niektorzy nazywaja wzgledna. Religijni ludzie popelniaja wiecej zbrodni jak ateisci, ktos powiedzial. Ateizm to nieobecnosc wiary w swiecie. Ateisci opieraja sie na kompleksywnosci swiata. Tysiac lat temu Bagdad byl centrum Swiata, a Europa byla heretycka. Ja bynajmniej jestem zajety Bogiem zawsze. 2 mln lat temu ziemie zamieszkiwal homo erectus. Zgadzamy sie obecnie odnosnie faktu, ze jestesmy rozumna malpa (weak speciec) Na przestrzeni tysiacleci geny wyprodukowaly adaptacje. 24 setki lat przed Jezusem powstal "inny gej guy" Ozyrys w Egipcie. On z Izyda orzekali przez kolejne setki lat o losie ludzkim. W nowej erze ludzkosc wybrala Jezusa, niektorzy mowia, zeby nie bylo "innych gejow guys" w ich dziejach. Jakkolwiek Jezus juz nie jest dla nich wszystkim. Czy bedzie jeszcze jeden Bog dalej, tego nie wiemy. Podobnie jak nie wiemy, jak wiele wymiarow ma wszechswiat. Tutaj nawet nukleonowa teoria strun w kwesti poczatku kosmosu pozostaje niewystarczalna. Celem moich esejow byla popularyzacja problemow ludzkich, zaadoptowanie ludzi, zmobilizowanie ich do indywidualnej odpowiedzialnosci za swiat i ziemie. To co pisze, to nie jest polityka, a raczej psychologia. Powinnismy wreszcie zrozumiec biblijna centralizacje, skupienie sie na czlowieku. Jakkolwiek juz nie jestesmy pepkiem wszechswiata. I mamy zyc z aktywnym usensownieniem swiata. Przy niebezpieczenstwie feminizacji swiata -wiedziec, jak powinnisny dzialac. Wspolczesnie mamy do czynienia z globalnym ociepleniem klimatu, magnetycznymi anomaliami, innymi katastrofami na swiecie jak trzesienia Ziemi i powodzie. A przy tym spoleczenstwa kieruja sie odmiennymi religiami i obyczajami. Religia pokazuje ludzkie zarysy z alteracjami zawsze. Zalozenia religii opieraja sie na poznawczej mechanicznosci, na przyczynowosci i celowosci. To ludzkosc stworzyla Boga, religie, a nie odwrotnie, przemawiaja ateisci. Intencjonalna sprawczosc swiata. Mozg ewoluuje. Przystawka decyzyjna. Fizyka rzadzi. Ale niektorzy ludzie potrzebuja ewidencji, oczywistosci dla swoich przekonan. Zastanawia fakt pojawienia sie na Ziemi olbrzymich blokow budowlanych, jak transportowano te kamienne bloki? A na innym miejscu mamy moćno poskrecane drzewa w lesie. Sa rzeczy na swiecie, ktore nam sie nie snily. W gettach ludzie pozostaja niezintegrowani. Tak wiec homary dalej sobie plywaja po oceanach swiata. Zaistnialy twoje socjalne media. Uzywam swiadomie tego jezyka. W te sytuacje wchodza nowe generacje. Uwazam, wychowanie dzieci jest konieczne. Trzeba przygotowac mlodych do spolecznego zycia. Postepowanie ze mna bywalo bardzo uderzajace w tej kwestii, niczym hipokryzja zoladkowa. Nie wystarczy byc wolnymi, wolnosc to cos wiecej. Trzeba wyjsc z niewolnictwa swojego ego. Niewola - to czynic ego. A to jest grzech. Istnieja niewolnicy swoich wad. Trzeba otworzyc sie na milosierdzie Boga, ktore czyni wolnym na zawsze. Modelem ojciec Maksymilian Kolbe z Auschwitz i inni. Zazdrosc niszczy. Ale zyjemy w ciele i mamy dusze. Kto jest prawdziwym niewolnikiem? Ten, kto nie posiadl zdolnosci kochania. Milosc kieruje nasz wzrok na innych. Trzeba konstruowac relacje. Nawet jesli mamy, powiedzmy to, dwa czy w wiekszej liczbie procesy cywilne (z racji na korupcje czy niewyplacalnosc finansowa), rowniez wtedy mozemy stawac sie wolnymi, takze w wiezieniu. Kierujmy sie zawsze cnota madrosci, ktora lud moze tylko przyjac., uznac za swoja. Ucierpialem bardzo za kazdym razem, gdy wysluchiwalem zarzuty odnosnie naduzyc seksualnych osob duchownych. Czynmy watpliwosci w tej kwestii, ale bez potepiania kogokolwiek. Bo sa cywilne i koscielne sady dalszych instancji, ktore odpowiadaja za te przypadki. To ich sprawa. Z era papieza Wojtyly nie rozumielismy tego dobrze. I ja bywalem najczesciej rozproszony wtedy. Przyjmijmy zasade: integracja, rozumienie wszystkich- jako postawa ostateczna. Niech sie tak stanie.
13:49, sbarszczak , CV
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piątek, 07 września 2018
Spanish search for a westward route to Asia

Stanislaw Barszczak, Homecoming by Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born into a Portuguese noble family in around 1480, Magellan became a skilled sailor and naval officer and was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands (the "Spice Islands"). Commanding a fleet of five vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (the modern Pacific Ocean). Despite a series of storms and mutinies, the expedition reached the Spice Islands in 1521 and returned home via the Indian Ocean to complete the first circuit of the globe. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521. His gift, the Santo Niño de Cebu image remains one of his legacies during his arrival.Magellan had already reached the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia on previous voyages traveling east (from 1505 to 1511–1512). By visiting this area again but now travelling west, Magellan achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history.The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it Magellan's navigational skills have also been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds, now known to be two nearby dwarf galaxies; the twin lunar craters of Magelhaens and Magelhaens A; and the Martian crater of Magelhaens.Magellan was born in northern Portugal in around 1480, either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, Alcaide-Mor of Aveiro (1433–1500, son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa) and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa.In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochinand Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu. He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed.In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized, Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the "Spice Islands" in the Moluccas, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.

After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514. Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this. In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa, he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married the daughter of Diogo's second wife, María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa. They had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age. His wife died in Seville around 1521.Meanwhile, Magellan devoted himself to studying the most recent charts, investigating, in partnership with cosmographer Rui Faleiro, a gateway from the Atlantic to the South Pacific and the possibility of the Moluccas being Spanish according to the demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas...Christopher Columbus's voyages to the West (1492–1503) had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498.Castile (Spain) urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain.In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda, Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, and with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Magellan's project, if successful, would realize Columbus' plan of a spice route by sailing west without damaging relations with the Portuguese. The idea was in tune with the times and had already been discussed after Balboa's discovery of the Pacific. On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July. He raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. The king granted them:Monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years;Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found, with 5% of the resulting net gains;A fifth of the gains of the travel;The right to levy one thousand ducats on upcoming trips, paying only 5% on the remainder;Granting of an island for each one, apart from the six richest, from which they would receive a fifteenth.The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel. Expert cartographer Jorge Reinel and Diogo Ribeiro, a Portuguese who had started working for Charles V in 1518[17] as a cartographer at the Casa de Contratación, took part in the development of the maps to be used in the travel. Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip, including lack of money, the king of Portugal trying to stop them, Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish, and the difficult nature of Faleiro. Finally, thanks to the tenacity of Magellan, the expedition was ready. Through the bishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca they obtained the participation of merchant Christopher de Haro, who provided a quarter of the funds and goods to barter.The fleet provided by King Charles V included five ships:The flagship Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under Magellan's command;San Antonio (120 tons; crew 60) commanded by Juan de Cartagena;Concepción (90 tons, crew 45) commanded by Gaspar de Quesada;Santiago (75 tons, crew 32) commanded by João Serrão;Victoria (85 tons, crew 43), named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V; commanded by Luis Mendoza.The crew of about 270 included men from several nations, including Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Greece, England and France.[20] Spanish authorities were wary of Magellan, so that they almost prevented him from sailing, switching his mostly Portuguese crew to mostly men of Spain. It included about 40 Portuguese, among them Magellan's brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, João Serrão, a relative of Francisco Serrão, Estêvão Gomes and Magellan's indentured servant Enrique of Malacca. Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. Juan Sebastián Elcano, a Spanish merchant ship captain settled at Seville, embarked seeking the king's pardon for previous misdeeds. Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetianscholar and traveller, asked to be on the voyage, accepting the title of "supernumerary" and a modest salary. He became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal. The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook. Juan de Cartagena was named Inspector General of the expedition, responsible for its financial and trading operations.On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan's command left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river. There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September 1519 and left Spain.King Manuel I ordered a Portuguese naval detachment to pursue Magellan, but the explorer evaded them. After stopping at the Canary Islands, Magellan arrived at Cape Verde, where he set course for Cape St. Augustine in Brazil. On 27 November the expedition crossed the equator; on 6 December the crew sighted South America.On 13 December anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro. There the crew was resupplied, but bad conditions caused them to delay. Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America's east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands. The fleet reached Río de la Plata in early February, 1520.For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, 1520. On Easter (April 1 and 2), a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains. Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria, was killed by a party sent by Magellan, and the ship was recovered. After Concepción's anchor cable had been secretly cut by his forces, the ship drifted towards the well-armed Trinidad, and Concepcion's captain de Quesada and his inner circle surrendered. Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio, subsequently gave up. Antonio Pigafetta reported that Gaspar Quesada, the captain of Concepción, and other mutineers were executed, while Juan de Cartagena, the captain of San Antonio, and a priest named Padre Sanchez de la Reina were marooned on the coast. Most of the men, including Juan Sebastián Elcano, were needed and forgiven. Reportedly those killed were drawn and quartered and impaled on the coast; years later, their bones were found by Sir Francis Drake.The journey resumed. The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed him as captain of the Victoria. The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm. All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. Two of them returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades. After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage with the four remaining ships.At 52°S latitude on 21 October 1520, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints' Day. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. He first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gómez, deserted and headed back to Spain on 20 November. On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness. Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait...Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. Pigafetta described the "lateen sail" used by the inhabitants of Guam, hence the name "Island of Sails", but he also writes the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on", including "the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship.""Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thievish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladroni."On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Europeans to reach the Philippine archipelago.Magellan relied on Enrique, his Malay servant and interpreter, to communicate with the native tribes. He had been indenturedby Magellan in 1511 after the colonization of Malacca, and had accompanied him through later adventures. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua who guided them to Cebu on 7 April.Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians and were given the image of the Holy Child (later known as Santo Niño de Cebu) which along with a cross (Magellan's Cross) symbolizes the Christianization of the Philippines. Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu, on Mactan. Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, but Lapu-Lapu rejected that. On the morning of 27 April 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu's troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan's death:When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. But after the battle, the remaining ships' masters refused to free the Malay. Enrique escaped his indenture on 1 May with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen.Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages – which he started at Mazaua on 29 March and his list grew to a total of 145 words. He continued communications with indigenous peoples during the rest of the voyage."Nothing of Magellan's body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan's victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan's existence had vanished from the earth."The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Consequently, on 2 May they abandoned and burned Concepción. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled westward to Palawan. They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei, Borneo, by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where Pigafetta, an Italian from Vicenza, recorded the splendour of Rajah Siripada's court (gold, two pearls the size of hens' eggs, porcelain from China, eyeglasses from Europe etc.). In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and an armament of 62 cannons, more than five times the armament of Magellan's ships. Brunei people were not interested in the Spanish cargo of cloves, but these proved more valuable than gold upon the return to Spain.When reaching the Maluku Islands (the Spice Islands) on 6 November, the total crew numbered 115. They traded with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese.The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, tried to return to Spain by sailing westwards. However, as they left the Spice Islands, the Trinidad began to take on water. The crew tried to discover and repair the leak, but failed. They concluded that Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled, but the small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidaddeparted and tried to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano. By 6 May 1522 the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put into Cape Verde, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crew on 9 July in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon). On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Spain aboard the Victoria, almost exactly three years after the fleet of five ships had departed. Magellan had not intended to circumnavigate the world, but rather had intended only to find a secure route through which the Spanish ships could navigate to the Spice Islands. After Magellan's death, Elcano decided to push westward, thereby completing the first known voyage around the entire Earth.Maximilianus Transylvanus interviewed some of the surviving members of the expedition when they presented themselves to the Spanish court at Valladolid in the autumn of 1522. He wrote the first account of the voyage, which was published in 1523. Pigafetta's account was not published until 1525, and was not published in its entirety until 1800. This was the Italian transcription by Carlo Amoretti of what is now called the "Ambrosiana codex." The expedition eked out a small profit, but the crew was not paid full wages.Four crewmen of the original 55 on Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1522; 51 had died in war or from disease. In total, approximately 232 sailors of assorted nationalities died on the expedition around the world with Magellan. When Victoria, the one surviving ship and the smallest carrack in the fleet, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board. Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus(Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) was a Genoese or Savonese.His history is preserved in the nominative registers at the Archivo General de Indiasin Seville, Spain. The family name is referred to with the exact Latin patronymic, "de Judicibus". Martino de Judicibus, initially assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of five ships of the Spanish fleet of Magellan, had embarked on the expedition with the rank of captain. There are: Juan Sebastián Elcano, from Getaria (Spain, Master; Francisco Albo, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia), Pilot; Miguel de Rodas (in Tui, Galicia), Pilot; Juan de Acurio, from Bermeo, Pilot; Antonio Lombardo (Pigafetta), from VicenzaSupernumerary;Martín de Judicibus, from Genoa,Chief Steward; Hernándo de Bustamante, from Alcántara, Mariner; Nicholas the Greek, from Nafplion, Mariner; Miguel Sánchez, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia), Mariner; Antonio Hernández Colmenero, from Huelva, Mariner; Francisco Rodrigues, Portuguese from Seville, Mariner;Juan Rodríguez, from Huelva, Mariner;Diego Carmena, from Baiona (Galicia),Mariner; Hans of Aachen, (Holy Roman Empire), Gunner;Juan de Arratia, from BilbaoAble Seaman;Vasco Gómez Gallego, from Baiona (Galicia) , Able Seaman;Juan de Santandrés, from Cueto (Cantabria), Apprentice Seaman; Juan de Zubileta, from Barakaldo, Page. Antonio Pigafetta's journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano's voyage. The other direct report of the voyage was that of Francisco Albo, the last Victoria's pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation through an account written by Maximilianus Transylvanus, a relative of sponsor Christopher de Haro, who interviewed survivors in 1522 and published his account in 1523.Since there was not a set limit to the east, in 1524 both kingdoms had tried to find the exact location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres and to resolve the "Moluccas issue". A board met several times without reaching an agreement: the knowledge at that time was insufficient for an accurate calculation of longitude, and each gave the islands to their sovereign. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spain and Portugal. It assigned the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. The course that Magellan charted was followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake. In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.In 1525, soon after the return of Magellan's expedition, Charles V sent an expedition led by García Jofre de Loaísa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano, who, along with many other sailors, died of malnutrition during the voyage, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. The Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternateand the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the "possession." (occupied by indigenous peoples.)Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan's name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.Magellan's crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a "camel without humps", which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black "goose" that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.The full extent of the globe was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The global expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon returning the expedition found its date was a day behind, although they had faithfully maintained the ship's log. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth's daily rotation. This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pope to explain the oddity to him.The Order of Magellan was established in 1902 to honour those who complete a circumnavigation and make other contributions to humanity.Two of the closest galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds in the southern celestial hemisphere, were named for Magellan sometime after 1800. The Magellan probe, which mapped the planet Venus from 1990 to 1994, was named after Magellan. The Ferdinand Magellan train rail car (also known as U.S. Car. No. 1) is a former Pullman Company observation car that was re-built by the U.S. Government for presidential use from 1943 until 1958.A replica of the Victoria, the only ship of Magellan's to survive the entire voyage, can be visited in Puerto San Julian.Three craters, two located on the Moon and one on Mars, have been named after Magellan using the spelling "Magelhaens". The names were adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1935 (Magelhaens on the Moon), 1976 (Magelhaens on Mars), and 2006 (Magelhaens A on the Moon).The asteroid 4055 Magellan, discovered in 1985, and the Magellan probe to Venus (1989–1994) were also named after him.The five hundredth anniversary of Magellan's expedition and circumnavigation will be commemorated in a series of events organised by the municipal council of Sanlucar de Barrameda in Spain, and supported by philanthropic organisations. (see, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Magellan)

12:20, sbarszczak
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środa, 05 września 2018
Conqueror of the seas- the story of Ferdinand Magellan
Stanislaw Barszczak, Homecoming by Magellan (to be continued) Don Antonio, the rich Italian client of the ship, he warned against the attacks of the "locals", after all we had already listened to nature concerts, against the current invasion of "strangers", as the inhabitants of nearby islands spoke about us, including the island of Cebo. As I mentioned I was a Victoria boarder . At the beginning of April 1521, the Magellan Expedition was composed of 96 people, but we were still able to make new investments. Seasonings, loading goods from Komory islands, it was still ahead of us. One day Magellan said about himself that he is not perfect, and that the world must be smaller constantly! Later, I also read in the Sile- book about strong and weak forces, the nature of which is kept in check. Scientists call strong and weak forces in the univers gravity, dynamic of the process, electromagnetism, expansion. So, the world exploded faster than light, that it is not eternal. How did the world come about? It was the beginning, there were elements necessary for the emergence of life, darkness emerged from the darkness, then the light, then the stars could finally emerge, and big Power, who keeps everything together, which shaped the planets. And there is no shortage of dark energy. There is part radiation of the universe. Chemically, we come to Earth, but atomically we belong to the entire universe. We are not the center of the universe already. It exceeds our imagination of the whole synthesis of the cosmos, another reality appears real, though in dreams only. The world must be smaller, and if there is no end, it's has to be humble in general. This is the imperative of this Expedition of Mr. Ferdynand Magellan, lapped the Earth, I never doubted it, he has already returned to his native land, to his happiness and his days. His dreams about the spherical world have fulfilled. He came to our homeland back. Let us fully read the heart of our fate. That the Messiah - the Savior would make us ever watchful for our sake... You see that. For life is ending and the world must be smaller ... We had 69,000 kilometer, and the results of the Expedition confirmed the fact that Earth - Mother is far greater than our thinking about it. We have never doubted, despite the passage in the Port of San Julian, we are a good crew, in bad and better times. We lived a week after parting with our Sailor-light. Magellan could have been stupid and unreasonable at the moment. He but always accepted the entire trip of the Expedition. Although he could "omit the all-time", he took the gloves of fate boldly and fearlessly. He fell in the battle. He always said: he wants to be bigger than himself. This is the challenge of our Sailor- Light of our path, we recognized that as continuing our struggle to be a better person, to distinguish ourselves in moments of particularly difficult Expeditions. We have always believed in a new chapter of collaboration with our Sailor-Light, and in the enormous Power of our prayers. And we repeated what our Sailor-Light have spoken: what will you, do today; the future depends on it. Because there will be no light on earth... And a Journey beyond the Sun before us ... Let's ask again, how did it start? Because the world "needs" to be smaller. Let the sweet Lord in heaven bless you, Mister Ferdinand Magellan, the new world and all of us.
11:41, sbarszczak , CV
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Z Drogi Mlecznej ku Andromedzie
Stanislaw Barszczak, Wyprawa dookola Ziemi (fragment koncowy) Pan Magellan musial isc nieustannie naprzod. Mawial: gdy nie ma gdzie zawrocic, trzeba isc naprzod. Po przybyciu do Hiszpanii Magellan po raz pierwszy spotkal sie z krolem Karolem I. Szybko udalo mu sie zdobyc przychylnosc wladcy oraz jego najblizszych wspolpracownikow. Pan Magellan studiujac mapy z wczesniejszych wypraw, zdecydowal sie na przejscie przez kontynent na Morze Poludniowe, w čelu dotarcia do Wysp Korzennych. Na Komorach przypraw cynamonowych bez liku. Ocean jest niebezpieczny i jego sztormy straszne, ale te trudnosci nigdy nie byly wystarczajaca racja, aby pozostawac na brzegu. Podobnie tez pozornie przecietne a nieustraszone duchy poszukuja zwyciestwa, ostatniej wiktorii nad tymi sprawami, ktore wydaja sie niemozliwe. Z zelazna wola wyruszaja one na najbardziej smiale ze wszystkich przedsiewziec, azeby kroczyc na spotkanie z mroczna przyszloscia bez leku i pozyskac nieznane. Pokonujac wszelkie przeszkody i trudnosci mozna niezawodnie dotrzec do wybranego čelu. Ale nie mozna odkryc nowych ladow bez zgody na strate spojrzenia w kierunku brzegu, bez zgody na strate niewidzenia go przez bardzo dlugi czas. Istnieja przerozne warianty takiej sytuacji. Aczkolwiek nie mozesz przekroczyc oceanu, jesli nie masz odwagi stracic stanowczo i na zawsze rodzimego, najbardziej kochanego brzegu. Te nose regiony, Ameryka -taka jest ich nazwa, a ktore znalezlismy i zbadalismy flota, mozemy je slusznie nazwac Nowym Swiatem. Ten kontynent gesciej zaludniony i bardziej obfitujacy w zwierzeta niz nasza Europa, Azja lub Afryka; a ponadto klimat lagodniejszy niz w jakimkolwiek innym znanym nam regionie. I mowil do nas Pan Magellan: Pewnego dnia postanowilem zrezygnowac z handlu i ustalic cel dla zycia, jakim jest cos bardziej godnego pochwaly i stabilnego. I dlatego przygotowalem sie ostatecznie, aby zobaczyc czesc swiata i jego čuda. Zycie ma wiecej wyobrazni, obejmuje nawet to, co widzielismy w snach. To Pan wlozyl mi do glowy ten zamysl, ze stad nawet mozna wyplynac do Indii. Wszyscy, ktorzy slyszeli o moim projekcie, odrzucili to ze smiechem, wysmiewajac mnie. Nie ma watpliwosci, ze natchnienie pochodzilo od wielkiego Ducha, poniewaz on pocieszal mnie promieniami cudownej inspiracji rowniez z Biblii. A teraz ujrzalem mieszkancow Nowego Swiata. Sposob ich zycia jest bardzo barbarzynski, poniewaz nie jedza o ustalonych porach, ale tak czesto, jak im sie podoba... Ale ich pokochalem. Uwierzylem nadto, ze swiat okragly. Sprzeciwilem sie obecnemu sadowi kosciola- to nam otwarcie powiedzial- kosciol mowi, ze Ziemia jest plaska, ale ja wiem, ze jest okragla. Poniewaz widzialem cien Ziemi na ksiezycu, i mam wiecej wiary w jej cien anizeli w kosciol. Juz wiecie skadinad, ze zaobserwowalem to po raz pierwszy i mialem szczescie moje sny urzeczywistnic.
08:22, sbarszczak , CV
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wtorek, 04 września 2018
Pokonujac wszelkie przeszkody i trudnosci mozna niezawodnie dotrzec do wybranego celu
Stanislaw Barszczak, Magellanowy powrot. Fernão de Magalhães, hiszp. Fernando Magallanes, ur. 1480, Sabrosa (dystrykt Vila Real), zm. 27 IV 1521, wyspa Mactan (Filipiny), żeglarz portugalski w służbie hiszpańskiej. Kalendarium: narodziny 1480; 1505-07 brał udział w portugalskiej wyprawie do Indii; 1511 uczestniczył w zdobywaniu Malakki ; 1513 walczyl w Maroku; 1517 osiadł w Hiszpanii; 1519 wyruszył na pierwszą wyprawę, podczas której po raz pierwszy opłynięto Ziemię; 1520 odkrył cieśninę (nazwaną jego imieniem) i Ziemię Ognistą; 1521 odkrył archipelag Filipin; 27 IV 1521 został zabity w potyczce z tubylcami na wyspie Mactan (Filipiny). Urodził się w 1480 na farmie Sabrosa (dystrykt Vila Real w prowincji Trás-dos-Montes). Jedna z najwybitniejszych postaci w dziejach żeglugi i odkryć geograficznych. Był organizatorem i dowódcą pierwszej wyprawy, która opłynęła Ziemię. W wieku 12 lat został paziem króla Jana II i królowej Eleonory na dworze królewskim w Lizbonie, a 1496 - giermkiem. Po raz pierwszy wypłynął w morze mając 20 lat. Początkowo uczestniczył w portugalskich wyprawach do południowej Azji: 1505-07 do Indii, 1509 do Malakki (miasta na Półwyspie Malajskim). W 1511 brał udział w zdobyciu Malakki. Po nieporozumieniach z gubernatorem Indii Portugalskich A. de Albuquerquem, a potem z dworem portugalskim, przeniósł się 1517 do Hiszpanii. W październiku tego roku dotarł do Sewilli, ówczesnej stolicy Hiszpanii, naturalizował się jako Hiszpan. Przedstawił królowi Karolowi I projekt zorganizowania wyprawy na Wyspy Korzenne (Moluki) drogą w kierunku zachodnim, która wydawała się możliwa po odkryciu 1513 przez Vasco de Balboę wielkiego morza (Oceanu Spokojnego), leżącego na zachód od Ameryki, oraz uzyskaniu wiadomości o cieśninie łączącej Ocean Atlantycki z odkrytym oceanem. Król Karol I zaakceptował plan wyprawy i przyznał na nią duże fundusze. Magellan, dowodząc flotyllą złożoną z 5 statków (karaki - duże żaglowce: flagowa Trinidad, San Antonio, Victoria, Concepción i Santiago), 20 IX 1519 opuścił port San Lucar. Statki dotarły 10 I 1520 do La Platy, którą wcześniej Juan de Solis uznał za cieśninę prowadzącą na Ocean Spokojny. Kilkutygodniowe poszukiwania wykazały jednak, iż jest to tylko ogromne ujście rzeczne. Magellan pożeglował dalej na południe i zimował w zatoce San Julian u brzegów Patagonii, gdzie musiał stłumić bunt załogi posądzającej go o to, że jako Portugalczyk celowo wywiódł Hiszpanów na zagładę. Żeglując wzdłuż wybrzeży Ameryki Południowej 21 X 1520 odkrył na południe od Patagonii cieśninę, nazwaną początkowo Cieśniną Patagońską, a po śmierci odkrywcy — Cieśniną Magellana. Ląd na południe od cieśniny Magellan nazwał Tierra del Fuego (Ziemia Ognista — marynarze widzieli płonące na lądzie ogniska). Po 5 tygodniach żeglugi tą niebezpieczną, krętą i usianą podwodnymi skałami drogą wodną 3 statki (Santiago rozbił się wcześniej o skały, a San Antonio potajemnie wrócił do Hiszpanii) wypłynęły 28 XI 1520 na ocean, który ze względu na sprzyjającą podczas żeglugi pogodę Magellan nazwał Mar Pacífico (Ocean Spokojny). Po ponad 3 miesiącach, gdy na niekończących się bezmiarach wód natrafiono tylko na niewielki atol Pukapuka w Tuamotu, wyprawa dotarła 6 III 1521 do archipelagu Marianów w Mikronezji. Magellan nazwał je Islas de los Ladrones (Wyspy Złodziejskie - krajowcy ukradli ze statków wiele przedmiotów). Niedługo potem, 17 III 1521 osiągnął nie znany dotąd Europejczykom archipelag Filipin. Magellan poległ 26 IV 1521 na wyspie Mactan w potyczce z jej królem, interweniując w sporze między krajowcami. Po śmierci Magellana wyprawa, pod dowództwem Juana Sebastiana Elcana, dotarła 8 XI 1521 do Moluków, gdzie mimo obecności Portugalczyków udało się zebrać duży ładunek korzeni. Stąd 18 XII 1521 wyruszył już tylko jeden zdolny do dalszej żeglugi statek, Victoria, który płynąc przez południową część Oceanu Indyjskiego z dala od szlaków uczęszczanych przez statki portugalskie, wokół południowej Afryki i przez Wyspy Zielonego Przylądka, wrócił 6 IX 1522 do San Lucar. Spośród 237 osób załogi powróciło zaledwie 18, ale pomimo strat w statkach i ludziach zyski z przywiezionych korzeni (26 ton goździków i cynamonu) przekroczyły z nadmiarem poniesione na wyprawę koszty...Gdy nie ma gdzie zawrocic, trzeba isc naprzod. Nie opowiedzialem tutaj nawet polowy tego, co widzialem, gdyz nikt i tak by nie uwierzyl...( i ja czytalem o naszej Wyprawie przez internet) Wyprawa należała do najważniejszych wydarzeń w dziejach ludzkości i w historii odkryć geograficznych. Opłynelismy po raz pierwszy Ziemię dookoła, dzięki czemu praktycznie i ostatecznie dowiedziono jej kulistego kształtu. Uzyskano właściwe wyobrażenie o jej rozmiarach oraz o rozległości Oceanu Spokojnego, a zarazem w końcu potwierdzono, że Krzysztof Kolumb odkrył nową, odrębną część świata. Podróż Magellana należy też do największych wyczynów w dziejach żeglugi. Wiedzą i umiejętnościami żeglarskimi przewyższał on pod wieloma względami Kolumba i Vasco da Gamę. Magellan samodzielnie opracował plan wyprawy, nie mając żadnych poprzedników pod względem tak śmiałego projektu, a w jej trakcie okazał się wytrawnym żeglarzem i energicznym dowódcą, realizującym z żelazną wytrwałością swój zamiar, mimo trudności ze strony uczestników wyprawy, jak i samej przyrody. Odkrytą przez siebie cieśninę (Cieśninę Magellana) pokonał w czasie 5 tygodni, a późniejsi żeglarze płynęli przez nią po kilka miesięcy. W okresie od XVI do XX w. imieniem Magellana nazwano wiele obiektów, zwłaszcza geograficznych i astronomicznych. Zachował się opis wyprawy dokonany przez jej uczestnika. I ja pokochalem Włocha Antonia Pigafetty, bogatego turysty, który zapłacił za możność uczestnictwa w wyprawie Magellana.
19:25, sbarszczak , CV
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Wyprawa dookola Ziemi
Stanislaw Barszczak, Magellanowy powrot Fernão de Magalhães, hiszp. Fernando Magallanes, ur. 1480, Sabrosa (dystrykt Vila Real), zm. 27 IV 1521, wyspa Mactan (Filipiny), żeglarz portugalski w służbie hiszpańskiej. Kalendarium: narodziny 1480; 1505-07 brał udział w portugalskiej wyprawie do Indii; 1511 uczestniczył w zdobywaniu Malakki ; 1513 walczyl w Maroku; 1517 osiadł w Hiszpanii; 1519 wyruszył na pierwszą wyprawę, podczas której po raz pierwszy opłynięto Ziemię; 1520 odkrył cieśninę (nazwaną jego imieniem) i Ziemię Ognistą; 1521 odkrył archipelag Filipin; 27 IV 1521 został zabity w potyczce z tubylcami na wyspie Mactan (Filipiny). Urodził się w 1480 na farmie Sabrosa (dystrykt Vila Real w prowincji Trás-dos-Montes). Jedna z najwybitniejszych postaci w dziejach żeglugi i odkryć geograficznych. Był organizatorem i dowódcą pierwszej wyprawy, która opłynęła Ziemię. W wieku 12 lat został paziem króla Jana II i królowej Eleonory na dworze królewskim w Lizbonie, a 1496 - giermkiem. Po raz pierwszy wypłynął w morze mając 20 lat. Początkowo uczestniczył w portugalskich wyprawach do południowej Azji: 1505-07 do Indii, 1509 do Malakki (miasta na Półwyspie Malajskim). W 1511 brał udział w zdobyciu Malakki. Po nieporozumieniach z gubernatorem Indii Portugalskich A. de Albuquerquem, a potem z dworem portugalskim, przeniósł się 1517 do Hiszpanii. W październiku tego roku dotarł do Sewilli, ówczesnej stolicy Hiszpanii, naturalizował się jako Hiszpan. Przedstawił królowi Karolowi I projekt zorganizowania wyprawy na Wyspy Korzenne (Moluki) drogą w kierunku zachodnim, która wydawała się możliwa po odkryciu 1513 przez Vasco de Balboę wielkiego morza (Oceanu Spokojnego), leżącego na zachód od Ameryki, oraz uzyskaniu wiadomości o cieśninie łączącej Ocean Atlantycki z odkrytym oceanem. Król Karol I zaakceptował plan wyprawy i przyznał na nią duże fundusze. Magellan, dowodząc flotyllą złożoną z 5 statków (karaki - duże żaglowce: flagowa Trinidad, San Antonio, Victoria, Concepción i Santiago), 20 IX 1519 opuścił port San Lucar. Statki dotarły 10 I 1520 do La Platy, którą wcześniej Juan de Solis uznał za cieśninę prowadzącą na Ocean Spokojny. Kilkutygodniowe poszukiwania wykazały jednak, iż jest to tylko ogromne ujście rzeczne. Magellan pożeglował dalej na południe i zimował w zatoce San Julian u brzegów Patagonii, gdzie musiał stłumić bunt załogi posądzającej go o to, że jako Portugalczyk celowo wywiódł Hiszpanów na zagładę. Żeglując wzdłuż wybrzeży Ameryki Południowej 21 X 1520 odkrył na południe od Patagonii cieśninę, nazwaną początkowo Cieśniną Patagońską, a po śmierci odkrywcy — Cieśniną Magellana. Ląd na południe od cieśniny Magellan nazwał Tierra del Fuego (Ziemia Ognista — marynarze widzieli płonące na lądzie ogniska). Po 5 tygodniach żeglugi tą niebezpieczną, krętą i usianą podwodnymi skałami drogą wodną 3 statki (Santiago rozbił się wcześniej o skały, a San Antonio potajemnie wrócił do Hiszpanii) wypłynęły 28 XI 1520 na ocean, który ze względu na sprzyjającą podczas żeglugi pogodę Magellan nazwał Mar Pacífico (Ocean Spokojny). Po ponad 3 miesiącach, gdy na niekończących się bezmiarach wód natrafiono tylko na niewielki atol Pukapuka w Tuamotu, wyprawa dotarła 6 III 1521 do archipelagu Marianów w Mikronezji. Magellan nazwał je Islas de los Ladrones (Wyspy Złodziejskie - krajowcy ukradli ze statków wiele przedmiotów). Niedługo potem, 17 III 1521 osiągnął nie znany dotąd Europejczykom archipelag Filipin. Magellan poległ 26 IV 1521 na wyspie Mactan w potyczce z jej królem, interweniując w sporze między krajowcami. Po śmierci Magellana wyprawa, pod dowództwem Juana Sebastiana Elcana, dotarła 8 XI 1521 do Moluków, gdzie mimo obecności Portugalczyków udało się zebrać duży ładunek korzeni. Stąd 18 XII 1521 wyruszył już tylko jeden zdolny do dalszej żeglugi statek, Victoria, który płynąc przez południową część Oceanu Indyjskiego z dala od szlaków uczęszczanych przez statki portugalskie, wokół południowej Afryki i przez Wyspy Zielonego Przylądka, wrócił 6 IX 1522 do San Lucar. Spośród 237 osób załogi powróciło zaledwie 18, ale pomimo strat w statkach i ludziach zyski z przywiezionych korzeni (26 ton goździków i cynamonu) przekroczyły z nadmiarem poniesione na wyprawę koszty...Gdy nie ma gdzie zawrocic, trzeba isc naprzod. Nie opowiedzialem tutaj nawet polowy tego, co widzialem, gdyz nikt i tak by nie uwierzyl...( i ja czytalem o naszej Wyprawie przez internet) Wyprawa należała do najważniejszych wydarzeń w dziejach ludzkości i w historii odkryć geograficznych. Opłynelismy po raz pierwszy Ziemię dookoła, dzięki czemu praktycznie i ostatecznie dowiedziono jej kulistego kształtu. Uzyskano właściwe wyobrażenie o jej rozmiarach oraz o rozległości Oceanu Spokojnego, a zarazem w końcu potwierdzono, że Krzysztof Kolumb odkrył nową, odrębną część świata. Podróż Magellana należy też do największych wyczynów w dziejach żeglugi. Wiedzą i umiejętnościami żeglarskimi przewyższał on pod wieloma względami Kolumba i Vasco da Gamę. Magellan samodzielnie opracował plan wyprawy, nie mając żadnych poprzedników pod względem tak śmiałego projektu, a w jej trakcie okazał się wytrawnym żeglarzem i energicznym dowódcą, realizującym z żelazną wytrwałością swój zamiar, mimo trudności ze strony uczestników wyprawy, jak i samej przyrody. Odkrytą przez siebie cieśninę (Cieśninę Magellana) pokonał w czasie 5 tygodni, a późniejsi żeglarze płynęli przez nią po kilka miesięcy. W okresie od XVI do XX w. imieniem Magellana nazwano wiele obiektów, zwłaszcza geograficznych i astronomicznych. Zachował się opis wyprawy dokonany przez jej uczestnika. I ja pokochalem Włocha Antonia Pigafetty, bogatego turysty, który zapłacił za możność uczestnictwa w wyprawie Magellana.
11:52, sbarszczak , CV
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Ekspansja wszechswiata
(Magellanowy powrot, fragment) Nie sztuką jest oceniać czyny po ich dokonaniu, gdyż wówczas pozornie wydają się proste... Przynieśli nam papugi, kłębki bawełny, strzały oraz wiele innych rzeczy. Wymienili to wszystko na pewne drobiazgi przez nas ofiarowane, jak np. Małe naszyjniki ze szkła i dzwoneczki. (...) Byli dobrze zbudowani, więź ciała i wygląd twarzy mieli niezwykle miły. (...) Broni nie mają i nie wiedzą, co to jest; gdyż kiedy pokazałem im miecze, niewiedza ich była taka, że chwytali je za ostrza i pocięli sobie palce. Żelaza nie posiadają. Ich strzały to dziryty bez żelaznych ostrzy, niekiedy osadzają na ich końcu ości rybne, a czasem inne przedmioty twarde.(...) Można by z nich zrobić doskonałych robotników (...) pięćdziesięciu ludzi starczyłoby zupełnie, aby utrzymać ich w ryzach i kazać im wykonywać wszystko, cokolwiek by się od nich żądało... Widzac tani rynek zbytu Magellan powiedzial: W imię Trójcy Świętej, wysyłajmy więc wszystkich niewolników, których da się sprzedać. Złoto to cudowna rzecz! Kto je posiada, jest panem wszystkiego, czego pragnie. Za pomocą złota można nawet duszom wrota raju otworzyć...
11:17, sbarszczak , CV
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