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piątek, 17 listopada 2017
health for the readers

Stanislaw Barszczak, A black horse,

4. Alfred Hitchcock on the set

In May 1963 The Museum of Modern Art publishes Peter Bogdanovich's 48-page The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock as part of their Hitchcock film retrospective /see, http://zakka.dk/euroscreenwriters/interviews/alfred_hitchcock.htm/ This is rare interview with Alfred Hitchcock. Peter Bogdanovich interviews Alfred Hitchcock in his office. I quote the interview because it shows Hitchcock character perfectly. I have all my butt, and the dead man was killed again, he also said in this interview, I think. Peter Bogdanovich (Serbian: born July 30, 1939) is an American director, writer, actor, producer, critic and film historian. He is part of the wave of "New Hollywood" directors, which included William Friedkin, Brian De Palma, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese, Michael Cimino and Francis Ford Coppola. His most critically acclaimed and well-known film is the drama The Last Picture Show (1971). I am referring here to Hitchcock's authentic but very rewritten statements. The legendary interview from 1963. PB: You never watch your films with an audience. Don't you miss hearing them scream? AH: No. I can hear them when I'm making the picture. PB: Do you feel that the American film remains the most vital cinema? AH: When we make films for the United States, we are automatically making them for all the world, because America is full of foreigners. It's a melting pot. Which brings us to another point. I don't know what they mean when they talk about "Hollywood" pictures. I say, "Where are they conceived?" Look at this room, you can't see out the windows. We might just as well be in a hotel room in London, or anywhere you like. So here is where we get it down on paper, Hitchcock said. Now where do we go? We go on location, perhaps; and then where do we work? We're inside on a stage, the big doors are closed, and we're down in a coal mine: we don't know what the weather is like outside. Again we don't know where we are, only within our film, within the thing we're making. That's why it's such nonsense to talk about locale. "Hollywood." That doesn't mean anything to me. If you say, "Why do you like working in Hollywood?" I would say, because I can get home at six o'clock for dinner. PB: How would you define pure cinema? AH: Pure cinema is complementary pieces of film put together, like notes of music make a melody. There are two primary uses of cutting or montage in film: montage to create ideas, and montage to create violence and emotions. For example, in Rear Window, where Jimmy Stewart is thrown out of the window in the end, I just photographed that with feet, legs, arms, heads. Completely montage. I also photographed it from a distance, the complete action. There was no comparison between the two. There never is. Barroom fights, or whatever they do in westerns, when they knock out the heavy or when one man knocks another across the table which breaks, they always break a table in bars, they are always shot at a distance. But it is much more effective if it's done in montage, because you involve the audience much more, that's the secret to that type of montage in film. And the other, of course, is the juxtaposition of imagery relating to the mind of the individual. You have a man look, you show what he sees, you go back to the man. You can make him react in various ways. You see, you can make him look at one thing, look at another - without his speaking, you can show his mind at work, comparing things - any way you run there's complete freedom. It's limitless, I would say, the power of cutting and the assembly of the images. PB: How do you work when you are shooting? AH: Well, I never look through the camera, you know. The cameraman knows me well enough to know what I want--and when in doubt, draw a rectangle and then draw the shot out for him. You see, the point is that you are, first of all, in a two-dimensional medium. Mustn't forget that. You have a rectangle to fill. Fill it. Compose it. I don't have to look through a camera for that. First of all, the cameraman knouws very well that when I compose I object to air, space around figures or above their heads, because I think that's redundant. It's like a newspaperman taking a still and trimming it down to its essentials. They have standing instructions from me--they never give any air around the figures. If I want air, I'll say so. Now, you see, when I'm on the set, I'm not on the set. If I'm looking at acting or looking at a scene--the way its played, or where they are--I am looking at a screen, I am not confused by the set and the movement of the people across the set. In other words, I follow the geography of the screen. I can only think of the screen. Most directors say, "Well, he's got to come in that door so he's got to walk from there to there." Which is as dull as hell. And not only that, it makes the shot itself so empty and so loose that I say, "Well, if he's still in a mood - whatever mood he's in - take him across in a close-up, but keep the mood on the screen." We're not interested in distance. I don't care how he got across the room. What's the state of mind? You can only think of the screen. You cannot think of the set or where you are in the studio - nothing of that sort. PB: What is your technique of working with actors? AH: I don't direct them. I talk to them and explain to them what the scene is, what it's purpose is, why they are doing certain things--because they relate to the story--not to the scene. The whole scene relates to the story but that little look does this or that for the story. As I tried to explain to that girl, Kim Novak, "You have got a lot of expression in your face. Don't want any of it. I only want on your face what we want to tell to the audience--what you are thinking." I said, "Let me explain to you. If you put a lot of redundant expressions on your face, it's like taking a piece of paper and scribbling all over it--full of scribble, the whole piece of paper. You want to write a sentence for somebody to read. They can't read it--too much scribble on the face. Much easier to read if the piece of paper is blank. That's what your face ought to be when we need the expression." Take The Birds. There is not one redundant expression on Hedren's face. Every expression makes a point. Even the slight nuance of a smile when she says, "What can I do for you, sir?" One look says, "I'm going to play a gag on him." That's the economy of it. PB: You've said that your pictures are finished before you set foot on the set - that is, once the script is completed. What is your working process with the writers? AH: In the early days - way, way back in the English period, I would always work on a treatment with a writer who would be a plot maker, or story man. I would work weeks and weeks on this treatment and what it would amount to would be a complete narrative, even indicating shots, but not in the words of long-shot or close-up. It would have everything in it, all the details. Then I used to give it to a top writer to dialogue it. When he sent in his dialogue, I would sit down and dictate the shots in a complete continuity. But the film had to be made on paper in this narrative form. It would describe the film, shot by shot, beginning to end. Sometimes with drawings, sometimes without. I abandoned this method when I came to America. I found that American writers wouldn't go for that sort of thing. I do it verbally now, with the writer, and then I make corrections and adjustments afterwards. I work many weeks with him and he takes notes. And I describe the picture for the production designers as well. Marnie has all been finished as far as the layout of the picture, but there's no dialogue in it. I would say I apply myself two-thirds before he writes and one-third after he writes. But I will not and do not photograph anything that he puts in the script on his own, apart from words. I mean any cinematic method of telling it - how can he know? On North by Northwest, Ernie Lehman wouldn't let me out of the office for a whole year. I was with him on every shot, every scene. Because it wasn't his material. PB: I've heard a story about your having been put in jail by your father at an early age. Did this have any particular effect on your development, do you think? AH: It could have - I must have been five when I was sent along with a note to the chief of police, who read the note and promptly put me into a cell and locked the door for five minutes; and then let me out, saying, "That's what we do to naughty little boys, you see." What effect that had on me at the time I can't remember, but they say psychiatrically if you can discover the origins of this or that, it releases everything. I don't think it released me from a natural fear of the police. PB: What influence, if any, do you think the Jesuit schooling has had on your work? AH: The Jesuits taught me organization, control, and to some degree, analysis. Their education is very strict, and orderliness is one of the things that come out of that, I suppose. Although my orderliness is spasmodic. I remember when I was at the age of eighteen or nineteen I was a senior estimator at an electrical engineering firm, and the requests for estimates used to come in, and I was kind of lazy so I'd pile them up on my desk and they'd go up to a big pile. And I used to say, "Well, I've got to get down to this," and then I polished them off like anything. And used to get praised for the prodigious amount of work I'd done in that particular day. That lasted until the complaints began to come in about the delay in answering. That's the way I feel about working. Certain writers want to work every hour of the day: they're very facile. I'm not that way. I want to say, "Let's lay off for several hours, let's play." And then we get down to it again. I'm sure the Jesuits did not teach that. As far as any religious influence, at the time I think it was fear. But I've grown out of religious fear now. I think I have. I don't know. I don't think the religious side of the Jesuit education impressed itself so much upon me as the strict discipline one endured at the time./Bogdanovich names all of Hitchcocks films and they discuss each one/… refers to the film The Thirty-Nine Steps (1935) PB: in all your chase films, why do you have the hero fleeing from both the police and the real criminals? AH: One of the reasons is a structural one. The audience must be in tremendous sympathy with the man on the run. But the basic reason is that the audience will wonder, "Why doesn't he go for the .police?" Well, the police are after him, so he can't go to them, can he? PB: Isn't it his sense of guilt that makes him so fervent? AH: Well, yes, to some degree. In Thirty-Nine Steps maybe he feels guilt because the woman is so desperate and he doesn't protect her enough, he's careless… Refers to the film The Lady Vanishes (1938) PB: The Lady Vanishes is one of your least complex films. Do you agree? AH: It is a very light film. Of course, it doesn't make sense. Why didn't they send the message by carrier pigeon? The story is inspired by that legend of an Englishwoman who went with her daughter to the Palace Hotel in Paris in the 1880's, at the time of the Great Exposition. The woman was taken sick and they sent the girl across Paris to get some medicine, in a horse-vehicle, so it took about four hours, and when she came back she asked, "How's my mother?" "What mother?" "My mother. She's here, she's in her room. Room 22." They go up there. Different room, different wallpaper, everything. And the payoff of the whole story is, so the legend goes, that the woman had Bubonic plague and they daren't let anybody know she died, otherwise all of Paris would have emptied. That was the original situation and pictures like Lady Vanishes were all variations on it… Regarding Rebecca (1940) PB: Wasn't Rebecca the first film in which you experimented with a tracking camera as 10. opposed to the use of montage? AH: Pretty well, yes. But only because we were going around a big house. I don't think it was really right, because after all, the eye must look at the character. It must not be conscious of a camera dollying unless you are dollying or zooming in for a particular purpose… As concerns Rope (1948) PB: Do you consider Rope one of your most experimental films, technically? AH: Only because I abandoned pure cinema in an effort to make the stage play mobile. With a flowing camera, the film played in its own time, there were no dissolves, no time-lapses in it, it was continuous action. And I thought it also ought to have a continuous flow of camera narrative as well. I think it was an error technically because one abandoned pure cinema for it. But when you take a stage play in one room, it is very hard to cut it up… As regards Rear Window (1954) PB: The critic on The Observer called this a horrible film because a man was looking out a window at other people. I thought that was a crappy remark. Everyone does it, it's a known fact, and provided it is not made too vulgar, it is just curiosity. People don't care who you are, they can't resist looking. Isn't there something sympathetic about the murderer in his confrontation scene with Stewart? AH: Well, the poor man. It's the climax of peeping tomism, isn't it? "Why did you do it?" he says. "If you hadn't been a peeping tom, I would have gotten away with it." Stewart can't answer. What can he say? He's caught. Caught with his plaster down… /Here the inner world of the author is more certain than what he sees, I would emphasize it/ … For the movie Vertigo (1958) PB: Isn't Vertigo about the conflict between illusion and reality? AH:Oh, yes… For the movie Psycho (1960) PB: Do you really consider Psycho an essentially humorous film? AH: Well, when I say humorous, I mean it's my humor that enabled me to tackle the outrageousness of it. If I were telling the same story seriously, I'd tell a case history and never treat it in terms of mystery or suspense. It would simply be what the psychiatrist relates at the end. PB: In Psycho, aren't you really directing the audience more than the actors? AH:  Yes. It's using pure cinema to cause the audience to emote. It was done by visual means designed in every possible way for an audience. That's why the murder in the bathroom is so violent, because as the film proceeds, there is less violence. But that scene was in the minds of the audience so strongly that one didn't have to do much more. I think that in Psycho there is no identification with the characters. There wasn't time to develop them and there was no need to. The audience goes through the paroxysms in the film without consciousness of Vera Miles or John Gavin. They're just characters that lead the audience through the final part of the picture. I wasn't interested in them. And you know, nobody ever mentions that they were ever in the film. It's rather sad for them. Can you imagine how the people in the front office would have cast the picture? They'd say, "Well, she gets killed off in the first reel, let's put anybody in there, and give Janet Leigh the second part with the love interest." Of course, this is idiot thinking. The whole point is to kill off the star, that is what makes it so unexpected. This was the basic reason for making the audience see it from the beginning. If they came in half-way through the picture, they would say, "When's Janet Leigh coming on?" You can't have blurred thinking in suspense… For the film The Birds (1963) PB: In The Birds, as in a lot of your films, you take ordinary, basically average people, and put them into extraordinary situations. AH: This is for audience identification. In The Birds, there is a very light beginning, girl meets boy, and then she walks right into a complicated situation: the boy's mother's unnatural relationship to him, and the school teacher who's carrying a torch for him. This girl, who is just a fly-by-night, a playgirl, comes up against reality for the first time. That transmits itself into a catastrophe, and the girl's transition takes place. PB: What do you feel the picture is really about? AH: Generally speaking, that people are too complacent. The girl represents complacency. But I believe that when people rise to the occasion, when catastrophe comes, they are all right. The mother panics because she starts off being so strong, but she is not strong, it is a facade: she has been substituting her son for her husband. She is the weak character in the story. But the girl shows that people can be strong when they face up to the situation. It's like the people in London, during the wartime air raids. PB: Isn't the film also a vision of Judgment Day? AH: Yes, it is. And we don't know how they are going to come out. Certainly, the mother was scared to the end. The girl was brave enough to face the birds and try to beat them off. But as a group they were the victims of Judgment Day. For the ordinary public - they got away to San Francisco - but I toyed with the idea of lap-dissolving on them in the car, looking, and there is the Golden Gate Bridge - covered in birds… PB: Aren't there a lot of trick-shots in the picture? AH: Had to be. There are 371 trick-shots in it, and the most difficult one was the last shot. That took 32 different pieces of film… And you would have to spend some money on it. /end of the interview/ Here are some thoughts by Hitchcock:” Puns are the highest form of literature…  Ideas come from everything. Fear isn't so difficult to understand. After all, weren't we all frightened as children? Nothing has changed since Little Red Riding Hood faced the big bad wolf. What frightens us today is exactly the same sort of thing that frightened us yesterday. It's just a different wolf. This fright complex is rooted in every individual…There is no terror in the bang, only in the anticipation of it…Give them pleasure /see, the people/. The same pleasure they have when they wake up from a nightmare…What is drama but life with the dull bits cut out…The length of a film should be directly related to the endurance of the human bladder…If I won't be myself, who will?...Always make the audience suffer as much as possible…I’ve never been very keen on women who hang their sex round their neck like baubles. I think it should be discovered. It’s more interesting to discover the sex in a woman than it is to have it thrown at you, like a Marilyn Monroe or those types. To me they are rather vulgar and obvious…I'm a writer and, therefore, automatically a suspicious character…There is a distinct difference between "suspense" and "surprise," and yet many pictures continually confuse the two. I'll explain what I mean…We are now having a very innocent little chat. Let's suppose that there is a bomb underneath this table between us. Nothing happens, and then all of a sudden, "Boom!" There is an explosion. The public is surprised, but prior to this surprise, it has seen an absolutely ordinary scene, of no special consequence. Now, let us take a suspense situation. The bomb is underneath the table and the public knows it, probably because they have seen the anarchist place it there. The public is aware the bomb is going to explode at one o'clock and there is a clock in the decor. The public can see that it is a quarter to one. In these conditions, the same innocuous conversation becomes fascinating because the public is participating in the scene. The audience is longing to warn the characters on the screen: "You shouldn't be talking about such trivial matters. There is a bomb beneath you and it is about to explode!"…In the first case we have given the public fifteen seconds of surprise at the moment of the explosion. In the second we have provided them with fifteen minutes of suspense. The conclusion is that whenever possible the public must be informed. Except when the surprise is a twist, that is, when the unexpected ending is, in itself, the highlight of the story…I can't read fiction without visualizing every scene. The result is it becomes a series of pictures rather than a book… We seem to have a compulsion these days to bury time capsules in order to give those people living in the next century or so some idea of what we are like. I have prepared one of my own. I have placed some rather large samples of dynamite, gunpowder, and nitroglycerin. My time capsule is set to go off in the year 3000. It will show them what we are really like… I'm a typed director. If I made Cinderella, the audience would immediately be looking for a body in the coach… I have a feeling that inside you somewhere, there's somebody nobody knows about…T.V. has brought murder back into the home where it belongs…In feature films the director is God; in documentary films God is the director…Suspense is like a woman. The more left to the imagination, the more the excitement. ... The conventional big-bosomed blonde is not mysterious. And what could be more obvious than the old black velvet and pearls type? The perfect ‘woman of mystery’ is one who is blonde, subtle and Nordic. ... Although I do not profess to be an authority on women, I fear that the perfect title [for a movie], like the perfect woman is difficult to find… In The Birds (1963), the Rod Taylor character, an innocent man, finds his world under attack by vicious birds, and struggles to free himself from a clinging mother (Jessica Tandy). The killer in Frenzy (1972) has a loathing of women but idolises his mother. The villain Bruno in Strangers on a Train hates his father, but has an incredibly close relationship with his mother (played by Marion Lorne). Sebastian (Claude Rains) in Notorious has a clearly conflictual relationship with his mother, who is (correctly) suspicious of his new bride Alicia Huberman (Ingrid Bergman). Norman Bates has troubles with his mother in Psycho. Hitchcock heroines tend to be blondes. Hitchcock appears briefly in most of his own films. For example, he is seen struggling to get a double bass onto a train (Strangers on a Train), walking dogs out of a pet shop (The Birds), fixing a neighbour's clock (Rear Window), as a shadow (Family Plot), sitting at a table in a photograph (Dial M for Murder), and missing a bus (North by Northwest). Hitchcock returned several times to cinematic devices such as suspense, a spectator in tension, the audience as voyeur… In a 1963 interview with Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci, Hitchcock was asked how in spite of appearing to be a pleasant, innocuous man, he seemed to enjoy making films involving suspense and terrifying crime. He responded: “I'm English. The English use a lot of imagination with their crimes. I don't get such a kick out of anything as much as out of imagining a crime. When I'm writing a story and I come to a crime, I think happily: now wouldn't it be nice to have him die like this? And then, even more happily, I think: at this point people will start yelling. It must be because I spent three years studying with the Jesuits. They used to terrify me to death, with everything…” Hitchcock once commented, "The writer and I plan out the entire script down to the smallest detail, and when we're finished all that's left to do is to shoot the film… I have a strongly visual mind. I visualise a picture right down to the final cuts. I write all this out in the greatest detail in the script, and then I don't look at the script while I'm shooting. I know it off by heart, just as an orchestra conductor needs not look at the score ... When you finish the script, the film is perfect. But in shooting it you lose perhaps 40 percent of your original conception. In Writing with Hitchcock, a book-length study of Hitchcock's working method with his writers, author Steven DeRosa noted that, "Although he rarely did any actual 'writing', especially on his Hollywood productions, Hitchcock supervised and guided his writers through every draft, insisting on a strict attention to detail and a preference for telling the story through visual rather than verbal means. While this exasperated some writers, others admitted the director inspired them to do their very best work. Hitchcock often emphasized that he took no screen credit for the writing of his films. However, over time the work of many of his writers has been attributed solely to Hitchcock's creative genius, a misconception he rarely went out of his way to correct. Notwithstanding his technical brilliance as a director, Hitchcock relied on his writers a great deal." While Hitchcock did do a great deal of preparation for all his films, he was fully cognizant that the actual film-making process often deviated from the best-laid plans and was flexible to adapt to the changes and needs of production as his films were not free from the normal hassles faced and common routines utilised during many other film productions… Hitchcock became known for his alleged observation, "Actors are cattle". He once said that he first made this remark as early as the late 1920s, in connection to stage actors who were snobbish about motion pictures. However, the actor Michael Redgrave said that Hitchcock had made the statement during the filming of The Lady Vanishes (1938). Later, in Hollywood, during the filming of Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941), Carole Lombard brought some heifers onto the set with name tags of Lombard, Robert Montgomery and Gene Raymond, the stars of the film, to surprise the director.[152] Hitchcock said he was misquoted: "I said 'Actors should be treated like cattle'." For Hitchcock, the actors, like the props, were part of the film's setting, as he said to Truffaut. I have a strongly visual mind. What is new in presenting a person here: a preference for visualizing rather than verbal means. Hitchcock wants to contact the audience at all costs. He made the permissible changes to the scenario, but retained the details. He often used the same actors in many of his films. Several actors who worked with him gave fine, often brilliant performances and these performances contribute to the film's success. His influence helped start a trend for film directors to control artistic aspects of their films without answering to the film's producer. The imaginary invention of climbing in creating art is as important as climbing in the mountains, the modern mountaineers understood that /see, mountain climbing  extreme by Arnold Messner/. Hitchcock had health problems. On January 12, 1957 feeling unwell, Hitchcock is confined to bed. For a few days still in pain, Hitchcock is admitted to the Cedars of Lebanon hospital, where he undergoes surgery for a navel hernia. He is also diagnosed as suffering from colitis. Then on March 9, 1967 Hitchcock is rushed to the Cedars of Lebanon hospital, where he is operated on to remove obstructing gallstones on March 11th. He spends the rest of March in hospital. On January 18, 1968 Hitchcock attends the funeral of his longtime physician, Dr. Ralph Tandowsky. In September 1974 Hitchcock suffers a heart attack and is fitted with a pacemaker at the UCLA hospital. So, with his health failing in early April, Hitchcock takes to bed at his Bel Air home.

 

Epilog

Somehow Hitchcock experiencing the world by the quantity of individuum is most important, his experience first. And the audience knows more like a hero. Unlimited watching the world here, hanging technique, see suspense. The audience is always the same, does not change. He wished us, good luck watching people. Nightmares are vivid in our life always. This told us the suspense genius, a quarter of an hour before the main hour of the day, the most important in the reception of photos to a new movie by the audience is. This is Hitchcock moronic logic, film idea, film reflection, reflexive light. Black and white birds were always, they can attack us in this era. Failing health reduced Hitchcock's output during the last two decades of his life. Biographer Stephen Rebello claimed Universal "forced" two movies on him, Torn Curtain (1966) and Topaz (1969). Both were spy thrillers set with Cold War-related themes. The first, Torn Curtain (1966), with Paul Newman and Julie Andrews, precipitated the bitter end of the twelve-year collaboration between Hitchcock and composer Bernard Herrmann. Herrmann was sacked when Hitchcock was unsatisfied with his score, and replaced with British composer John Addison. Topaz (1969), based on a Leon Uris novel, is partly set in Cuba. Both received mixed reviews from critics. On the Hitchcock holiday they traveled to Cuba, Marrakesh in Morocco, Lake Como in Italy, St. Moritz, Switzerland, The Palace Hotel. Last time in December 1975. Alfred Hitchcock first visited St. Moritz during the filming of The Prude's Fall (1924) and returned there with Alma Reville on their honeymoon in December 1926, where they stayed at the Palace Hotel. From then onwards, they often returned to spend their Christmas vacation at the hotel and to celebrate their wedding anniversary. The highest summit in the Eastern Alps, the Piz Bernina, lies a few miles south of the town. The town is a popular destination of the upper class and international jet set, as well as being one of the most expensive ski resorts in the world. Hitchcock was often asked by the press if he intended to ski whilst on holiday. In December 1954 he responded, "I hope not. No, definitely no. I'll watch some skiing but I just like sitting in my room at the hotel and looking at the snow." During their Christmas 1966 holiday, he replied, "I am a devotee of winter sports from a distance." When John Russell Taylor visited Hitchcock following the publication of Hitch: The Life and Times of Alfred Hitchcock in 1978, he asked the director about his future plans and the possibility of enjoying a retirement: As Hitch said, “What would I do, sit at home in a corner and read?” But he had begun to cut down on all activities outside the preparation of the next film. Virtually ever since their marriage, Hitch and Alma had gone back for their wedding anniversary to their honeymoon hotel in St. Moritz. But now there was Alma's health and the cessation of direct flights, which entailed a tiresome and expensive stopover in Paris, to consider. And, as Hitch pointed out, these days he did nothing in St. Moritz but sit by a window and observe the snowy scene outside. “So, I thought I might just as well get the scene painters at Universal to paint a large snowy backdrop to hang outside my window in Bel Air." To promote his films in the fifties Hitchcock undertook long journeys. In November1955 The Hitchcocks tour Asia to promote The Trouble with Harry, visiting India, Japan, Thailand and Hong Kong. On December 3, 1955 Concerns start to grow after the aircraft the Hitchcocks are travelling on from India to the Far East fails to arrive in Singapore. There are fears that it may have crashed into the Bay of Bengal. The Hitchcocks were due to be the guests of Singaporean businessman Loke Wan Tho, who had organised a cocktail party and formal dinner. Still no news had arrived the following day and Loke commented to the press, "I am completely baffled." In 1960 year Hitchcock had been in the Hotel in Sydney, Australia. Partway through the interview, he accidentally kicked his shoe off and is later photographed retrieving it from beneath a chair. In May1964 The Hitchcocks spend 2 months in Europe on vacation, occasionally giving interviews and attending special events held in their honour. Amongst the many cities and places visited are: London, Villa D'Este at Lake Como, Rome, Vienna, Munich, Paris, the French Riviera, Belgrade, Dubrovnik and Zagreb. In his professional career he returned willingly to the British Isles and to Paris. In 1972 year Hitchcock returned to Britain to make his penultimate film Frenzy. After two espionage films, the plot marks a return to the murder thriller genre, and is based upon the novel Goodbye Piccadilly, Farewell Leicester Square. The plot centres on a serial killer in contemporary London. For the first time, Hitchcock allowed nudity and profane language, which had previously been taboo, in one of his films. He also shows rare sympathy for the policeman on the case and his comic domestic life. Family Plot (1976) was Hitchcock's last film. It relates the escapades of "Madam" Blanche Tyler, played by Barbara Harris, a fraudulent spiritualist, and her taxi driver lover Bruce Dern, making a living from her phony powers. William Devane, Karen Black, Katherine Helmond, and Cathleen Nesbitt co-starred. It is the only Hitchcock film scored by John Williams. While Family Plot was based on the Victor Canning novel The Rainbird Pattern, the novel's tone is more sinister and dark than what Hitchcock wanted for the film. Screenwriter Ernest Lehman originally wrote the film with a dark tone but was pushed to a lighter, more comical tone by Hitchcock. Near the end of his life, Hitchcock had worked on the script for a projected spy thriller, The Short Night, collaborating with James Costigan, Ernest Lehman and David Freeman. Despite some preliminary work, the screenplay was never filmed. This was caused primarily by Hitchcock's seriously declining health and his concerns for his wife, Alma, who had suffered a stroke. In 1976 year The Hollywood article goes on to say, "Mr. Hitchcock said he was an unabashed Francophile. In October 1978 actor Barry Foster pays Hitchcock a visit. Bill Ingram resigns from Technicolor to set up Simba Film Ltd, "to buy and sell theatrical and television product". In December 1978 writer David Freeman begins working with Hitchcock on the script of The Short Night. On May 8, 1979 Hitchcock's old friend Victor Saville, who had recently attended the director's AFI Lifetime Achievement Award, dies. Several sources regard Saville's death as a contributing factor to Hitchcock deciding to abandon any attempt to make The Short Night and to shut down his bungalow office at Universal. In August this year Ingrid Bergman pays Hitchcock a final visit ,"He took both my hands and tears streamed down his face and he said, 'Ingrid, I'm going to die,' and I said, 'But of course you are going to die sometime, Hitch ... we are all going to die.' And then I told him that I, too, had recently been very ill, and that I had thought about it, too. And for a moment the logic of that seemed to make him more peaceful." On December 31, 1979 Hitchcock becomes Sir Alfred Hitchcock in the Queen's New Year Honours List, receiving an honourary knighthood. He had previously declined a CBE in 1962. In January 1980 too infirm to travel to London to receive his honourary knighthood directly from Queen Elizabeth II, the British Consuls-General of the United Kingdom to Los Angeles, Thomas Aston, makes a formal presentation to Hitchcock at his office at Universal in front of the press. When asked, "What does a knight do?", the director replies, "The first obvious thing he does, is go out into the night." In March Hitchcock checks into Cedars of Lebanon hospital for diagnostic tests. With his health failing in early April, Hitchcock takes to bed at his Bel Air home. On April 29. 1980 Alfred Hitchcock dies of renal failure at 9:17am at his Bel Air home. On June 3, 1980 A requiem mass is held at Westminster Cathedral in London for Alfred Hitchcock. Amongst the attendees are Sidney Bernstein, Ingrid Bergman, Ann Todd, Elsie Randolph, Anna Neagle, Joan Harrison, Barry Foster and George Perry. On June 29. 1980 in an article published in the Boston Globe, composer John Williams spoke about working with Hitchcock on Family Plot (1976), "I wasn't excited about that particular picture, but I wanted to work with Hitchcock, and it turned out to be his last film. He didn't want any thick, heavy scoring. 'Just remember this,' he said to me, 'murder can be fun.'“ Hitchcock died aged 80 in his Bel Air home of renal failure on 29 April 1980. While biographer Spoto wrote that Hitchcock "rejected suggestions that he allow a priest ... to come for a visit, or celebrate a quiet, informal ritual at the house for his comfort", Jesuit priest Mark Henninger wrote that he and fellow priest Tom Sullivan celebrated Mass at the filmmaker's home; Sullivan heard Hitchcock's confession. He was survived by his wife and their daughter. Lew Wasserman, board chairman and chief executive officer of MCA Inc. and previously Hitchcock’s longtime agent, stated: I am deeply saddened by the death of my close friend and colleague, Sir Alfred Hitchcock, whose death today at his home deprives us all of a great artist and an even greater human being. Almost every tribute paid to Sir Alfred in the past by film critics and historians has emphasized his continuing influence in the world of film. It is that continuing influence, embodied in the magnificent series of films he has given the world, during the last half-century, that will preserve his great spirit, his humour and his wit, not only for us but for succeeding generations of film-goers. Hitchcock's funeral Mass was held at Good Shepherd Catholic Church in Beverly Hills on 30 April 1980, after which his body was cremated and his remains were scattered over the Pacific Ocean on 10 May 1980. On July 6, 1982 Alfred Hitchcock's wife Alma Reville dies of natural causes at her Bel Air home. fin

13:15, sbarszczak
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“If I won't be myself, who will?...I can't read fiction without visualizing every scene.”/Alfred Hitchcock

Stanislaw Barszczak, A black horse,

Foreword

Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 Leytonstone - 29 April 1980 Bel Air, California, U.S.) was an English film director and producer. He pioneered many elements of the suspense and psychological thriller genres. He had a successful career in British cinema with both silent films and early talkies and became renowned as Britain's leading filmmaker. Hitchcock moved to Hollywood in 1939 and became a U.S. citizen in 1955. Alma mater: Salesian College, St Ignatius' College. Spouse Alma Reville (m. 1926; his death 1980). Children Patricia Hitchcock. Hitchcock became a highly visible public figure through interviews, film trailers, cameo appearances in his own films, and the ten years in which he hosted the television programme Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1955–1965). Hitchcock's stylistic trademarks include the use of camera movement that mimics a person's gaze, forcing viewers to engage in a form of voyeurism. In addition, he framed shots to maximise anxiety, fear, or empathy, and used innovative forms of film editing. His work often features fugitives on the run alongside "icy blonde" female characters. He directed more than fifty feature films in a career spanning six decades and is often regarded as one of the most influential directors in cinematic history. His first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1927), helped shape the thriller genre in film. His 1929 film, Blackmail, is often cited as the first British sound feature film, while Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), North by Northwest (1959) and Psycho (1960) are regularly ranked among the greatest films of all time. He was the second son and the youngest of three children of William Hitchcock (1862–1914), a greengrocer and poulterer, and Emma Jane Hitchcock (née Whelan; 1863–1942). As I mentioned Mister Hitchcock was raised as a Roman Catholic, and sent to Salesian College, Battersea, and the Jesuit grammar school St Ignatius' College in Stamford Hill, London.

 

  1. From 5 minutes at the police station to 'Winter's Grace'

Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (was born on 13 August 1899 Leytonstone, now part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest, England- died on 29 April 1980 Bel Air, California, U.S.) was an English film director and producer. His parents were both of half-English and half-Irish ancestry. He often described a lonely and sheltered childhood that was worsened by his obesity. Around age five, Hitchcock recalled that to punish him for behaving badly, his father sent him to the local police station with a note asking the officer to lock him away for five minutes. This incident implanted a lifelong fear of policemen in Hitchcock, and such harsh treatment and wrongful accusations are frequent themes in his films. Alfred was only an average. So, in the autumn of 1910, Alfred Hitchcock, aged 11, begins studying at St. Ignatius College, a Jesuit Catholic secondary school in Stamford Hill, London. Next year Hitchcock continues his education at St. Ignatius College and receives a distinction in mathematics. In July 1913 Hitchcock graduates from St. Ignatius College and enrols at the London County Council School of Marine Engineering and Navigation, located on the High Street, Poplar, London, to study draughtsmanship and advertising design. From May 1914 he was watching the Scala Theatre, managed by Graham Cutts. Following his studies at the London County Council School of Marine Engineering and Navigation, Hitchcock begins working for W.T. Henley's Telegraph Works Company Ltd on Bromfield Street, London, where he is initially employed in the sales department. On December 12,1915 Alfred Hitchcock's father, William Hitchcock, dies from chronic emphysema and kidney disease. In this year also 16 year-old Alma Reville enters the film trade, securing a job as a film cutter at the London Film Company. Although educated in engineering, Hitchcock soon realises that he doesn't want to become an engineer and so enrols on a evening course at Goldsmiths College to study art. The course leads to his appreciation of fine art and to a deeper interest in theatre and film. During this period, Hitchcock increasingly seeks out new plays and films. During 1916, Hitchcock sees the stage play "Who is He?", based on the 1913 book The Lodger by Marie Belloc Lowndes. He will go on to adapt the book into a film and a radio play. With the First World War entering it's third year, 18-year-old Hitchcock is declared "unfit for military service" (C3) and so continues to work at W.T. Henley's Telegraph Works. Unable to join the army, he instead signs up for the Royal Engineers and takes part in evening and weekend exercises, including marches around Hyde Park. In March 28,1917 Hitchcock's cousin Charles James Hitchcock dies from injuries sustained whilst fighting in Egypt. He had served as a Private in the 3rd County of London Yeomanry (aka the "Sharpshooters") and the Machine Gun Corps, and had also fought in Gallipoli and Palestine. He is buried at Beersheba War Cemetery. In late 1917, Hitchcock requests to be transferred from the sales department at W.T. Henley's Telegraph Works to the advertising department and by early 1918 he is in his new post where his responsibilities include helping to design the company's sales brochures and advertising materials. In July 1919 the US film company Famous Players-Lasky announces that it plans to open studios in the UK and development work begins in October 1919 at a new studio complex in Islington, London. Islington Studios are officially opened in May 1920. Settled into his new role in the advertising department, Hitchcock becomes the editor of a new in-house magazine for W.T. Henley's Telegraph Works - The Henley Telegraph. While working at Henley's, Hitchcock began to dabble in creative writing.The initial issue, dated 1st of June 1919, includes a contribution from Hitchcock entitled "Gas". The September 1919 issue of The Henley Telegraph contains a contribution from Hitchcock entitled "The Woman's Part". John Maxwell founds Wardour Films Ltd with £50,000…His first piece, "Gas" (1919), published in the first issue of  The Henley Telegraph, tells of a young woman who imagines that she is being assaulted one night in London- only for the twist to reveal that it was all just a hallucination in the dentist's chair induced by the anaesthetic… Hitchcock was a film fan from his teenage years, and in 1919 began his film career at the age of twenty, working as a title card designer for the London branch of the American firm Famous Players-Lasky, the production arm of Paramount Pictures, at Islington Studios. In time Balcon's company a new firm took the name Gainsborough Pictures. Hitchcock worked in the company. His rise from title designer to film director took five years. During this period, he became an unusual combination of screenwriter, art director, and assistant director on a series of five films for Balcon and director Graham Cutts. “The Blackguard” by Graham Cutts (German: Die Prinzessin und der Geiger, 1925), was produced at the Babelsberg Studios in Potsdam, where Hitchcock observed part of the making of F. W. Murnau's film The Last Laugh (1924).He was impressed with Murnau's work and later used many techniques for the set design in his own productions. In a book-length interview with François Truffaut, Hitchcock also said that he was influenced by Fritz Lang's film Destiny (1921). He was likewise influenced by other foreign filmmakers whose work he absorbed as one of the earliest members of the "seminal" London Film Society, formed in 1925. Hitchcock's first few films faced a string of bad luck. His first directing project came in 1922 with the aptly titled Number 13, filmed in London. The production was cancelled because of financial problems; the few scenes that had been finished at that point have been lost. Michael Balcon gave Hitchcock another opportunity for a directing credit with The Pleasure Garden (1925), a co-production of Gainsborough and the German firm Emelka, which he made at the Geiselgasteig studio near Munich in the summer of 1925. The film was a commercial flop. Next, Hitchcock directed a drama called The Mountain Eagle (1926), possibly released under the title Fear o' God, in the United States. This film is lost. Hitchcock's luck changed with his first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1927), a suspense film about the hunt for a Jack the Ripper type of serial killer in London. Released in January 1927, it was a major commercial and critical success in the United Kingdom. Following the success of The Lodger, Hitchcock hired a publicist to help strengthen his growing reputation. On May 13, 1929 the Duke and Duchess of York visit the British International Pictures studios, where they meet with Alfred Hitchcock and watch a scene from Blackmail being rehearsed… On 2 December 1926, Hitchcock married his assistant director, Alma Reville, at the Brompton Oratory in South Kensington, London. Alma was to become Hitchcock's closest collaborator, but her contributions to his films (some of which were credited on screen) Hitchcock would discuss only in private, as she was keen to avoid public attention. In 1928, Hitchcock and Alma purchased a house named 'Winter's Grace', situated on Stroud Lane, Shamley Green, in Surrey. The building was originally a Tudor farmhouse dating from the 16th century. The Hitchcocks lived most weekdays at 153 Cromwell Road in London, whilst spending their weekends in Shamley Green entertaining guests. Their only child, daughter Patricia, was born on 7 July of the same year. Hitchcock began work on his tenth film, Blackmail (1929), when its production company British International Pictures (BIP) decided to convert its Elstree facility to sound, and to utilise that new technology in Blackmail. It was an early "talkie" feature film. Blackmail began the Hitchcock tradition of using famous landmarks as a backdrop for suspense sequences, with the climax of the film taking place on the dome of the British Museum. In 1933, Hitchcock was once again working for Michael Balcon at Gaumont British. His first film for the company The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) was a success and his second The 39 Steps (1935) was acclaimed in the UK.Hitchcock released two espionage thrillers in 1936, Sabotage, loosely based on Joseph Conrad's novel about a woman who discovers that her husband, a London cinema owner, is an agent terrorist, and Secret Agent. Hitchcock's next major success was The Lady Vanishes (1938), a fast-paced film about the search for kindly old Englishwoman Miss Froy (Dame May Whitty) who disappears while on board a train in the fictional country of Bandrika.The Guardian called the film "one of the greatest train movies from the genre's golden era", and a contender for the "title of best comedy thriller ever made". Hitchcock was lauded in Britain, where he was dubbed "Alfred the Great" by Picturegoer magazine. Additionally, his reputation was beginning to soar overseas by the end of the 1930s, with a New York Times feature writer stating: "Three unique and valuable institutions the British have that we in America have not. Magna Carta, the Tower Bridge and Alfred Hitchcock, the greatest director of screen melodramas in the world." On 6 August 1930 Hitchcock is one of 300 guests attending a luncheon ceremony to honour pilot Amy Johnson at the Savoy Hotel, London. The Hon. Esmond Harmsworth presents Miss Johnson with a cheque for £10,000. The other attendees from the world of British cinema are listed as Brian Aherne, Noel Coward, Annie Croft, Gwenn ffrangeon-Davis, Maurice Evans, Jean Forbes-Robertson, Nancy Heath, W.H. Heath, Lupino Lane, Charles Laughton, Frank Lawton, Auriol Lee, Alison Leggett, Ivor Novello, Mabel Poulton and Glen Byam Shaw.

 

  1. American Universal Studios and “Cornwall Ranch”

David O. Selznick signed Hitchcock to a seven-year contract beginning in March 1939, and set to end in 1946, which brought the Hitchcocks to Hollywood. The suspense and the gallows humour that had become Hitchcock's trademark in his films continued to appear in his American productions. The working arrangements with Selznick were less than ideal. Selznick suffered from constant financial problems, and Hitchcock was often displeased with Selznick's creative control over his films. Selznick, the big producer, lent Hitchcock to the larger studios more often than producing Hitchcock's films himself. Selznick made only a few films each year, as did fellow independent producer Samuel Goldwyn, so he did not always have projects for Hitchcock to direct. Goldwyn had also negotiated with Hitchcock on a possible contract, only to be outbid by Selznick. Hitchcock was quickly impressed with the superior resources of the American studios compared with the financial limits that he had often faced in Britain. The Selznick picture Rebecca (1940) was Hitchcock's first American film, set in a Hollywood version of England's Cornwall and based on a novel by English novelist Daphne du Maurier. The film stars Laurence Olivier and Joan Fontaine. The story concerns a naïve (and unnamed) young woman who marries a widowed aristocrat. She goes to live in his huge English country house, and struggles with the lingering reputation of his elegant and worldly first wife Rebecca, who died under mysterious circumstances. The film won Best Picture at the 13th Academy Awards.The statuette was given to Selznick, as  the film's producer. Hitchcock was nominated for the Best Director award, his first of five such nominations, but did not win…In August 1940 the Hitchcocks bought the 200-acre (0.81 km2) Cornwall Ranch in the Santa Cruz Mountains, "Heart o' the Mountains" estate in Scotts Valley, California and this becomes the family's second home and weekend retreat. The ranch became the holiday home of the Hitchcocks. Their primary residence was an English-style home in Bel Air which was purchased in 1942. During the Second World War Hitchcock worked in America, sailing his wife Elma to America, sometimes he visits Europe. On August 14, 1942 for her birthday, Alfred presents Alma with a new handbag. Inside is a gold key to the front door of their new home, 10957 Bellagio Road. In June 1947 The Hitchcocks celebrate their daughter Patricia's high school graduation with a lavish party at their Bellagio Road house. Among the guests are Alida Valli, Whitfield Cook, Hume Cronyn, Jessica Tandy, Arthur Laurents, Farley Granger, Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman. On December 6, 1947 to celebrate the imminent start of filming on the first Transatlantic Pictures production, Rope, Hitchcock hosts a party at his Bellagio Road home. Among the guests are Sidney Bernstein and his wife, Arthur Laurents, Whitfield Cook, John Hodiak, Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant. On November 2,1948 The Hitchcocks host a dinner at their Bellagio Road home for Whitfield Cook and Hume Cronyn, whilst listening to the results of the election - Harry Truman is reelected. As for professional work there were additional problems between Selznick and Hitchcock, with Selznick known to impose restrictive rules on Hitchcock. At the same time, Selznick complained about Hitchcock's "goddamn jigsaw cutting", which meant that the producer did not have nearly the leeway to create his own film as he liked, but had to follow Hitchcock's vision of the finished product. Hitchcock's second American film was the thriller Foreign Correspondent (1940) with its plot set in Europe, based on Vincent Sheean's Personal History and produced by Walter Wanger. It was nominated for Best Picture that year. Hitchcock, along with many other British subjects, felt uneasy living and working in Hollywood while their country was at war; his concern resulted in a film that overtly supported the British war effort. The movie was filmed in the first year of the Second World War and was inspired by the rapidly changing events in Europe, as fictionally covered by an American newspaper reporter (portrayed by Joel McCrea). The film mixed footage of European scenes with scenes filmed on a Hollywood backlot. It avoided direct references to Nazism, Nazi Germany, and Germans to comply with Hollywood's Production Code censorship at the time. Hitchcock's films were diverse during the 1940s, ranging from the romantic comedy Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941), to the courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1947), to the bleak film noir Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Suspicion (1941) marks Hitchcock's first film as a producer as well as director. It is set in England, and Hitchcock used the north coast of Santa Cruz, California for the English coastline sequence. This film is the first of four projects on which Cary Grant worked with Hitchcock, and it is one of the rare occasions that Grant was cast in a sinister role. Grant plays a penniless dishonest con-artist whose actions raise suspicion and anxiety in his shy young English wife (Fontaine). Saboteur (1942) is the first of two films that Hitchcock made for Universal during the decade. Hitchcock was forced to use Universal contract player Robert Cummings and Priscilla Lane (a freelancer who signed a one-picture deal with Universal), both known for their work in comedies and light dramas. Breaking with Hollywood conventions of the time, Hitchcock did extensive location filming, especially in New York City, and depicted a confrontation between a suspected saboteur (Cummings) and a real saboteur (Norman Lloyd) atop the Statue of Liberty. Shadow of a Doubt (1943) was Hitchcock's personal favourite of all his films and the second of the early Universal films. It is about young Charlotte "Charlie" Newton (Teresa Wright), who suspects her beloved uncle Charlie Oakley (Joseph Cotten) of being a serial murderer. Hitchcock again filmed extensively on location, this time in the Northern California city of Santa Rosa during the summer of 1942. Working at 20th Century Fox, Hitchcock adapted a script of John Steinbeck's, which recorded the experiences of the survivors of a German U-boat attack in the film Lifeboat (1944). The action sequences were shot in a small boat in the studio water tank. While at Fox, Hitchcock seriously considered directing the film version of A. J. Cronin's novel about a Catholic priest in China, The Keys of the Kingdom, but the plans for this fell through. In 1944 Hitchcock stated: "I felt the need to make a little contribution to the war effort, and I was both overweight and over-age for military service. I knew that if I did nothing, I'd regret it for the rest of my life." From late June to late July 1945, Hitchcock served as "treatment advisor" on a Holocaust documentary which used footage provided by the Allied Forces. It was produced by Sidney Bernstein of the British Ministry of Information, and was assembled in London. The film-makers were commissioned to provide irrefutable evidence of the Nazis' crimes, and the film recorded the liberation of Nazi concentration camps. The film was originally intended to be broadcast to the Germans following World War II, but the British government deemed it too traumatic to be shown to the already-shocked post-War population. The full-length version of the film German Concentration Camps Factual Survey was completed in 2014, and was restored by film scholars at the Imperial War Museum. Hitchcock worked for Selznick again when he directed Spellbound (1945), which explores psychoanalysis and features a dream sequence. For added novelty and impact, the climactic gunshot was hand-coloured red on some copies of the black-and-white film. The original musical score by Miklós Rózsa makes use of the electronic theremin. Notorious (1946) followed Spellbound. Notorious stars Hitchcock regulars Bergman and Grant, and features a plot about Nazis, uranium and South America. McGilligan writes that Hitchcock consulted Robert Millikan of the California Institute of Technology about the development of an atomic bomb. Selznick complained the notion was "science fiction", only to be confronted by the news stories of the detonation of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in August 1945. On August 17, 1946 according to newspaper reports, Hitchcock was one of many Hollywood notables dining at Lucy's on Melrose Avenue, Los Angeles, when two armed men entered and beat up former convinct James Utley who was seated in the restaurant. Hitchcock continues to work, he formed an independent production company with his friend Sidney Bernstein called Transatlantic Pictures, through which he made two films, his first in colour and making use of long takes. With Rope (1948), Hitchcock experimented with marshalling suspense in a confined environment, as he had done earlier with Lifeboat (1944). It features James Stewart in the leading role, and was the first of four films that Stewart made with Hitchcock. It was inspired by the Leopold and Loeb case of the 1920s. Under Capricorn (1949), set in 19th century Australia, also uses the short-lived technique of long takes, but to a more limited extent. He again used Technicolor in this production, then returned to black-and-white films for several years. Transatlantic Pictures became inactive after these two unsuccessful films, however, Hitchcock continued to participate in the production and ownership his own films for the rest of his life. Hitchcock filmed Stage Fright (1950) at studios in Elstree, England where he had worked during his British International Pictures contract many years before. He matched one of Warner Bros.'most popular stars, Jane Wyman, with the expatriate German actress Marlene Dietrich and used several prominent British actors, including Michael Wilding, Richard Todd and Alastair Sim. This was Hitchcock's first proper production for Warner Bros., which had distributed Rope and Under Capricorn, because Transatlantic Pictures was experiencing financial difficulties. His film Strangers on a Train (1951) was based on the novel by Patricia Highsmith. In it, Hitchcock combined many elements from his preceding films. He approached Dashiell Hammett to write the dialogue, but Raymond Chandler took over, then left over disagreements with the director. ‘I Confess’ (1953) was set in Quebec with Montgomery Clift as a Catholic priest. “I Confess” was followed by three popular colour films starring Grace Kelly. Dial M for Murder (1954) was adapted from the stage play by Frederick Knott. With Dial M, Hitchcock experimented with 3D cinematography, with the film now being available in the 3D format on Blu-ray.Then Hitchcock moved to Paramount Pictures and filmed Rear Window (1954), starring James Stewart and Kelly again, as well as Thelma Ritter and Raymond Burr. Stewart's character is a photographer (based on Robert Capa) who must temporarily use a wheelchair. Out of boredom, he begins observing his neighbours across the courtyard, and then becomes convinced that one of them (Raymond Burr) has murdered his wife. Stewart tries to convince both his policeman buddy (Wendell Corey) and his glamorous model-girlfriend (Kelly, whom screenwriter John Michael Hayes based on his own wife), and eventually he succeeds. As with Lifeboat and Rope, the principal characters are depicted in confined or cramped quarters, in this case to Stewart's small studio apartment overlooking a large courtyard. From 1955 to 1965, Hitchcock was the host of the television series titled Alfred Hitchcock Presents. While his films had made Hitchcock's name strongly associated with suspense, the TV series made Hitchcock a celebrity himself. His irony-tinged voice and signature droll delivery, gallows humour, iconic image and mannerisms became instantly recognisable and were often the subject of parody. Hitchcock also appears as a character in the popular juvenile detective book series. At the height of Hitchcock's success in 1956, he was also asked to introduce a set of books with his name attached. The series was a collection of short stories by popular short-story writers, primarily focused on suspense and thrillers. In 1955, Hitchcock became a United States citizen. The oath made on April 20. 1955. His third Grace Kelly film To Catch a Thief (1955) is set in the French Riviera, and pairs her with Cary Grant. He plays retired thief John Robie, who becomes the prime suspect for a spate of robberies in the Riviera. It was Hitchcock's last film with Kelly. She married Prince Rainier of Monaco in 1956, and ended her film career. Hitchcock then remade his own 1934 film The Man Who Knew Too Much in 1956. This time, the film starred James Stewart and Doris Day, who sang the theme song "Que Sera, Sera", which won the Oscar for Best Original Song and became a big hit for her. They play a couple whose son is kidnapped to prevent them from interfering with an assassination. As in the 1934 film, the climax takes place at the Royal Albert Hall, London. The Wrong Man (1957), Hitchcock's final film for Warner Bros., is a low-key black-and-white production based on a real-life case of mistaken identity reported in Life magazine in 1953. This was the only film of Hitchcock to star Henry Fonda, playing a Stork Club musician mistaken for a liquor store thief, who is arrested and tried for robbery while his wife (Vera Miles) emotionally collapses under the strain. Hitchcock told Truffaut that his lifelong fear of the police attracted him to the subject and was embedded in many scenes. Hitchcock's next film, Vertigo (1958) again starred James Stewart, this time with Kim Novak and Barbara Bel Geddes. Stewart plays "Scottie", a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman that he has been hired to shadow (Novak).Vertigo contains a camera technique developed by Irmin Roberts that has been copied many times by filmmakers commonly referred to as a dolly zoom. It was premiered in the San Sebastián International Film Festival, where Hitchcock won a Silver Seashell. Vertigo is considered a classic today, but it met with some negative reviews and poor box office receipts upon its release, and was the last collaboration between Stewart and Hitchcock.

 

  1. A formal dinner at the Carlton Hotel in Nice

Built in 1942, 10957 Bellagio Road, Bel Air, was the property the Hitchcock's lived in until their deaths in the 1980s. The 7-bedroomed house sits on a 0.64 acre site, adjacent to the Bel Air Country Club golf course, and was purchased for $40,000. Hitchcock reportedly gave Alma a new handbag for her 43rd birthday, containing a gold key to the front door. The Hitchcock's moved to Bellagio Road from nearby St. Cloud Road, where they'd rented a property from actress Carole Lombard. In November 1959 actress Janet Leigh meets Hitchcock for the first time at his home on Bellagio Road where he outlines his plans for Psycho. She later wrote, "He outlined his modus operandi. The angles and shots of each scene were predetermined, carefully charted before the picture began. There could be no deviations. His camera was absolute. Within the boundary of the lens circumference, the player was given freedom, as long as the performance didn't interfere with the already designed move [...] This was the way the man worked. And since I had profound respect for his results, I would earnestly comply."  On August 18, 1961 in the early hours of the morning, residents of Santa Cruz are awoken by the sounds of a large sooty shearwater flock flying into their homes, disoriented by a heavy sea fog. The front page of the Santa Cruz Sentinel newspaper reports "Seabird Invasion Hits Coastal Town". Hitchcock contacts the newspaper and requests more details, eager to incorporate them into his a new film The Birds. On November 6, 1961 a discarded cigarette butt starts a fire in Bel Air that eventually destroys over 500 houses and causes $30,000,000 damage. The Hitchcocks store their valuables in the wine cellar and seek temporary shelter. The Hitchcocks spend Christmas in St. Moritz. Hitchcock followed Vertigo with three more successful films, which are also recognised as among his best films: North by Northwest (1959), Psycho (1960) and The Birds (1963). In North by Northwest, Cary Grant portrays Roger Thornhill, a Madison Avenue advertising executive who is mistaken for a government secret agent. Cary Grant, a veteran member of the Hitchcock acting varsity, was never more at home than in this role of the advertising-man-on-the-lam. He handles the grimaces, the surprised look, the quick smile ... and all the derring-do with professional aplomb and grace. In casting Eva Marie Saint as his romantic vis-à-vis, Mr. Hitchcock has plumbed some talents not shown by the actress heretofore. Although she is seemingly a hard, designing type, she also emerges both the sweet heroine and a glamorous charmer. Psycho is among Hitchcock's most widely seen films. Produced on a constrained budget of $800,000, it was shot in black-and-white on a spare set using crew members from his television show Alfred Hitchcock Presents. The unprecedented violence of the shower scene, the early death of the heroine and the innocent lives extinguished by a disturbed murderer became the defining hallmarks of a new horror film genre and have been copied by many authors of subsequent films. The public loved the film, with lines stretching outside of cinemas as people had to wait for the next showing. It broke box-office records in the United Kingdom, France, South America, the United States and Canada and was a moderate success in Australia for a brief period. It was the most profitable film of Hitchcock's career; Hitchcock personally earned well in excess of $15 million. He subsequently swapped his rights to Psycho and his TV anthology for 150,000 shares of MCA, making him the third largest shareholder in MCA Inc. and his own boss at Universal, in theory at least, but that did not stop them from interfering with him. On May 5, 1963 Tippi Hedren, Alma and Alfred Hitchcock fly from Los Angeles to New York, en route to the Cannes Film Festival. They stay overnight at the Regis Hotel before flying on to Paris. On May 9, 1963 The Hitchcocks and Tippi Hedren fly from Paris to Nice, before travelling on to Cannes. A evening cocktail reception is held in the ballroom of Les Ambassadeurs with 1,000 invited guests before the black-tie showing of The Birds at 9:30pm. Afterwards, a formal dinner is held at the Carlton Hotel for around 300 guests. The dishes are served in blue / underlined by the author /. The next day following a large press conference for The Birds, Hitchcock and Tippi Hedren release 400 pigeons. On May 16, 1963 The Hitchcocks arrive back in Los Angeles. The Birds (1963), inspired by a short story by English author Daphne du Maurier and by a news story about a mysterious infestation of birds in Capitola, California, was Hitchcock's 49th film, and the location scenes were filmed in Bodega Bay, California. Newcomer Tippi Hedren co-starred with Rod Taylor and Suzanne Pleshette. The scenes of the birds attacking included hundreds of shots mixing live and animated sequences. The cause of the birds' attack is left unanswered… In 2012, Hedren described Hitchcock as a "sad character"; a man of "unusual genius", yet "evil, and deviant, almost to the point of dangerous, because of the effect that he could have on people that were totally unsuspecting". In response, a Daily Telegraph article quoted several actresses who had worked with Hitchcock, including Eva Marie Saint, Doris Day and Kim Novak, none of whom shared Hedren's opinion about him. Novak, who worked on Hitchcock's Vertigo, told the Telegraph "I never saw him make a pass at anybody or act strange to anybody." Hitchcock biographer Donald Spoto explains, “Throughout his career, Hitchcock liked the phrase pure cinema–‘this is pure cinema.’ What he seems to have meant by that was that he wanted to use as often as possible strictly visual means, not dialogue, to get across the emotional impact, the feeling of a shot or a sequence.” Alfred Hitchcock had a mission to communicate through pictures, to give the audience something that only the movies can give you. As filmmakers and film lovers, we can treasure and learn much about this process by enjoying Pure Cinema… We're inside on a stage, the big doors are closed, and we're down in a coal mine: we don't know what the weather is like outside, Hitchcock said. Again we don't know where we are, only within our film, within the thing we're making. That's why it's such nonsense to talk about locale. "Hollywood." That doesn't mean anything to me. If you say, "Why do you like working in Hollywood?" I would say, because I can get home at six o'clock for dinner.  Alfred Hitchcock loved to make movies and he loved to eat - and not necessarily in that order. So it's no surprise that just about every movie he made featured food and dining. In Blackmail, Suspicion, Shadow of a Doubt, Rope, Strangers on a Train, Psycho, Topaz and many more films, important scenes that reveal his deeper, often unappetizingly macabre, themes take place over a meal. He took sometimes food very seriously. But he didn't take himself too seriously. At all. In these last few slides, we see Hitch with his wife of 55 years or so, Alma Reville. She was as great a cook as you'd ever meet. I have a hunch that she kept Hitch fat and happy in order to create a bit more distance between him and the beautiful actresses he directed. Whatever the case, they had a beautiful, flourishing relationship. He sometimes mused about making a movie about a meal: it would begin early in the morning with the chefs' helpers down at the wholesale market buying boxes of fresh produce and vegetables and the finest meat, then loading all of that onto delivery trucks to be shuttled to the kitchen of a five star hotel, where an army of chefs in tall paper toques would slice and dice and chop and bake and fry and flambé all of those ingredients into gastronomic masterpieces. A brigade of waiters would then file in and with great ceremony march those platters out to hungry patrons in the dining room, who would then cut and scoop and scrape all of that food into their mouths. Hitch deeply understood taste of the body... Although the Hitchcocks were rich and famous, they kept a relatively modest ranch style home in Los Angeles' Bel-Air neighborhood. In the early 1960s, they remodeled their kitchen to create an open floor plan, with a bar where guests could hang out and enjoy wine while Hitch and Alma kept busy in the kitchen. While this social-cooking arrangement is common in many homes today, it was unusual back then: just another area in which the Hitchcocks were ahead of their time. Throughout his career, Hitch occupied the spotlight while Alma, his partner in crime, was content to remain in the background. In 1979, he squared that up when he received the AFI Life Achievement Award. During his acceptance speech, he said: “I beg permission to mention by name only four people who have given me the most affection, appreciation, and encouragement, and constant collaboration. The first of the four is a film editor, the second is a scriptwriter, the third is the mother of my daughter Pat, and the fourth is as fine a cook as ever performed miracles in a domestic kitchen and their names are Alma Reville." A few years ago, their daughter, Patricia Hitchcock O'Connell, wrote a biography of about her mother, shedding some light on this important, but heretofore somewhat unknown woman. At the end of the book she added an appendix that reproduced several of Alma's most noteworthy guest menus. Here's one for dinner with Tippi Hedren: Here are a couple more images that reveal Hitch's domestic side - as well as his love of imports. Hitch was a neat freak, so after Alma cooked the meal, he enjoyed washing the dishes and tidying up the kitchen. And this leads us right into our dessert course! Dessert: Freudian delights: Lady fingers and beignets arranged to look like penises /sic/. Lady fingers and custard served in an ashtray, arranged to look like cigars. Cocktail: Rusty nail. Here are the menu suggestions by Hitchcock, as I believe: Appetizer: Herbed white bean bruschetta, Caprese bruschetta, Prosciutto-wrapped cantaloupe. Wine: A variety of sparkling wines. Cocktail: White Lady. First course: Roasted beet and tomato gazpacho, Bread. Wine: A variety of white wines. Hitch treated food to grossly comical surreal effect. On his film  the police chief is served lavish meals that are all but inedible. Here's the rub: Hitch and Buñuel were friends; Hitch even called the surrealist his favorite director of all time. Because of the similarities between these two movies I believe the two directors were passing notes to each other in the back of class that year. Main course:  Roasted Leg of Lamb, Ratatouille. Wine: A variety of red Bordeaux. The Hitchcocks loved to accept guests, For example on March 7, 1956  prior to filming on The Wrong Man commencing, Hitchcock hosts a "Ghost-Haunted House Party" on East 80th Street. The menu contains such delights as "corpse croquettes, barbecued banshee, ghoulish goulash and formaldehyde frappe." In November 1957 Hitchcock hosts an Alfred Hitchcock Presents party at the Coconut Grove (part of the Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles) for TV magazine editors. Two days later Hitchcock hosts a "Chuckwagon Diner" party at Republic Studios for newspaper columnists. On November 14, 1957 Over lunch, Hitchcock offers Vertigo actress Barbara Bel Geddes the staring role in the Alfred Hitchcock Presents episode "Lamb to the Slaughter". Several years later in August 1974 The Hitchcocks celebrate their 75th birthdays at a special party organised by Lew Wasserman at Chasen's Restaurant. Among the guests are Cary Grant, Laraine Day, Paul Newman and François Truffaut. /to be continued/

12:37, sbarszczak
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piątek, 10 listopada 2017
robotnikom, ludziom kultury i nauki
Stanisław Barszczak, “Człowiek z nadziei…” To powiem, Państwo wiecie że przegraliśmy powstania w XIX stuleciu. Ale żyjemy w Polsce trzeciego tysiąclecia i trzeba pracować według reguł gry. Zarazem myślę jako człowiek nadziei. I powiem: jesteśmy normalnym krajem. ‘Prawie,’ dorzuciłby Daniel Olbrychski... Ale czy ja mam prawo mówienia za moich rodaków, za wszystkich sponiewieranych przez los, za wszystkich cierpiących w różnorakich sposób. Nie mnie o tym sądzić. Chciałbym jednak pokazywać zawsze tę szczególną intymność ludzi w stosunku do filmu, magii kina. Bo wszyscy jesteśmy aktorami jutra. Czy nam to się podoba czy nie, w to wierzę. Jak powiedziałem na innym miejscu, miasta teraz szybciej się rozwijają jak wieś. Nie jestem za bałaganem współczesnym. Ale w tej epoce mamy olbrzymie szanse wykształcenia dla chętnych z każdego zakątka ojczyzny. Jakkolwiek jednak przeważa społeczna bezmyślność, przebogata jest infrastruktura socjalna, wykształcenie, przemysł budowlany, postęp technologii, chemia. Ale istnieją rozliczne zagrożenia. To Polska nie jest mi obojętna, powiedziałby wnuk Marszałka Piłsudskiego, Pan Piotr Jaroszynski. Co będzie z ceną energii...nie wiem. System finansowy zdestabilizowany. Caritas, to mówiłem już przy innej okazji, bazuje wyłącznie na kapitalistycznym rachunku zysku i strat. Ja osobiście zdecydowanie jestem za każdą radykalną sprawiedliwością... Co służy rozwojowi osobowemu, to jest dla mnie kompasem działania. I tak tym razem wspomnę o roli kina w świadomości narodu. Kino stanowi część działalności społecznej. W miasteczku Ząbkowice, tam gdzie się ukształtowałem jako ‘człowiek z nadziei,’ stał okazały budynek w środku parku. Było tam kino Uciecha. A teraz są tylko ruiny. To Kino poszło w zapomnienie. Zniszczenie kina studyjnego to olbrzymia strata dla Ząbkowic. Nadeszła epoka kolorowego filmu. Wydawało się, że staniemy się wyznawcami naturalizmu już na wieki, że będziemy więcej naturalni... Dla mnie Lenin był wówczas osobą nader aktualną. To ten, który nieustannie w swych wystąpieniach pwoływał się na Rząd rewolucyjny Francji. Wówczas nie miałem świadomości komunistycznej rzeczywistosci. Może z śmiercią ukochanej Matki ta świadomość urosła w moich oczach. Za to telewizja była czymś ważnym zawsze. Na meczach widziałem setki tysięcy rodaków. Pan Andrzej Wajda ostrzegał przed nacjonalizmem (sic). Pojawił się następnie papież Polak, który zbierał miliony... Przed laty na wiosnę 1979 roku napisałem opowiadanie pt. “Nie lubię poniedziałku.” W ten sposób przygotowywałem się do spotkania z Janem Pawłem II w mojej ojczyźnie. Wówczas tytuł mojego pierwszego, kiczowatego opowiadania o częstochowskich pielgrzymach do Ojca świętego, powstał z prozaicznej przyczyny- w poniedziałek witaliśmy Jana Pawła w Częstochowie. A były to piękne dni... W poniedziałki zawsze mogliśmy oglądać teatr telewizji. Magia kina otwierała się na naszych oczach, gdy patrzyliśmy na pierwszą wersję filmu Westerplatte (każdy nosi w sobie jakieś "Westerplatte", zakres działań, od których nie można zdezerterować, mawiał Jan Paweł II), a później obejrzeliśmy wspólnie film "Polskie drogi," o polskiej a okupacyjnej drodze do zniszczenia hitleryzmu. W teatrze telewizji widzieliśmy sztuki Wyspiańskiego, szczególnie pamiętam "Wyzwolenie". Dzisiaj nie ma w poniedziałki teatru telewizji. Tydzień zaczynamy będąc z kulturą na bakier. Owszem, szukamy innego świata. Ale czy z pożytkiem dla Polski- tej którą nieustannie jeszcze oglądam na mapie Europy jako wielką i piękną zarazem. Amerykanie nakręcili film Apokalipsa. Tydzień juz skończył się w dziejach świata. Nastała wojna szybkiej cywilizacji jutra. Czy biedni zabiorą się na pokład statku ku takiej cywilizacji. To pytanie retoryczne, które jeszcze sobie stawiam czasami. Tak więc mieszkam w Polsce. Tutaj zawsze jestem, bo uczestniczyłem w tym świecie od dziecka. Ty też razem z innymi jestem głosem tych, którzy zginęli w wojnie. Żeby były sukcesy trzeba coś zrobić, na przykład filmy głęboko oryginalne. Pan Jerzy Stuhr chce mówić do widza na jego warunkach. To dobrze. W rezultacie powiedziałbym tak: powiedzmy co mamy do powiedzenia o przeszłości- ale zaraz idźmy ku przyszłości. Żebyśmy mieli prawo przed następnymi generacjami Polaków do nazywania się ojczyzną Mickiewicza. Społeczeństwo stanowi słabość prawną... Bo nikt nie zna swojej mocy i swojej słabości. Mamy nadto rynkowe społeczeństwo. Miałem zaszczyt być na sześciu kontynentach ziemskiego globu. I ujrzałem brutalność w muzeum świata. Teraźniejsza ‘zmiana klimatu’ dla świata- jak ludobójstwo Ormian czy hitlerowskie, mniemam tak. Moja penetracja świata nie opiera się bynajmniej na jakichś zaburzeniach psychicznych (ang. mental problems). Ale jest relacją z codziennych doświadczeń. Nigdy nie miałem planów zawojowania świata. Jutro Szef Unii Europejskiej Donald Tusk zawija do Warszawy i będzie na obchodach święta Niepodległości Polski. Myślę że pokażemy się w komplecie. Prezydentowi Tuskowi powiedziałbym teraz: gratuluję Panu stanowiska, Panie Tusk. Bo wiem, że to jest ciężkie. Jak “człowiek z nadziei” ( wszelka Solidarność w ojczyźnie mojej wyrastała przed czterdziestu laty właśnie z nadziei) muszę być aktorem najlepszym, myślę… Tutaj chciałbym coś wam powiedzieć. Jak wiecie Karol Wojtyła był aktorem. Wspomina Pan Daniel Olbrychski jego spotkania z ojcem świętym: zostaliśmy zaproszeni na poranną Mszę świętą. Weszli już do kaplicy Ojca świętego w Watykanie i czekamy na pojawienie się najważniejszej osoby. Rozglądamy się wokoło, Ja i Andrzej (Seweryn). Mogło być parę minut po godzinie szóstej rano. Naraz spojrzałem przed ołtarz, a On tam już był. Papież już leżał krzyżem na posadzce przed ołtarzem... A po skończonej projekcji filmu “Pan Tadeusz”, a siedzieli przy Ojcu świętym: reżyser filmu Andrzej Wajda z małżonką, Andrzej Seweryn i inni. Ojciec Święty zwrócił się do mnie i powiedział mi tylko: wielka kreacja (chodziło o mojego Gerwazego)... Myślę osobiście, że jak papież Franciszek szczyt mam za sobą. Ale chcę mieć prawo, zachować intymność z kościołem. Pragnę głębokich kontaktow z pasjonatami życia wewnętrznego. Po projekcji filmu Jan Pawel II długą spowiedź Jacka Soplicy zacytował z pamięci… Uważam, że powinienem do końca życia być aktorem, i to najlepszym. A moje kapłaństwo tylko na tym zyska. Jestem jeszcze czasami monstrum, lwem ‘ryczącym’ za tym, że oto coś mi się należy od życia. A przecież nie umiałem spożytkować autorytetow. To jednak moim głębokim pragnieniem jest trwanie z pasjonatami sztuki na zawsze. Już nie mogę się doczekać gali aktorów i ich sponsorów podczas 90- tej hollywoodzkiej Gali wręczania Oscarów na wiosnę przyszłego roku. Ale jak umiem najlepiej chciałbym wypełniać prawo miłości. "Miłość Domu Twego pożaru mnie," modlił się Chrystus do Ojca. Kapłaństwo nie jest balastem, powtarzam, ale spełnieniem mojej drogi ku wiecznej prawdzie. I moje kapłaństwo chcę opisywać wam wciąż. Salman Rushdie, pisarz hinduski skazany na śmierć przed laty, uważa, iż nie pisze literatury a zapisuje historie (he makes story), że jest pisarzem historykiem. Jego historie są właśnie fikcją. Ja chcę być literatem kościoła. Bo nie jesteśmy bynajmniej jeszcze miastem Boga, niebieskim Jeruzalem. Ale już mamy być świątynią Boga. Tak więc otwieram was na moją świątynię. Ale świątynia świata jest inna. Mass media informują o teraźniejszym Spotkaniu ekonomicznym Przywódców Państw w Da NANG, centrum Wietnamu. Jakkolwiek Prezydent Trump nie reprezentuje Ameryki, i nie jest religijny, bynajmniej zachęca kraje świata do uczciwości i wzajemności w relacjach (ang. fairness and reciprocity). Życzę obradującym otwartych myśli podbudowanych piękną naturą, uratowania ludzkiej spontaniczności. Niech wolny rynek - stwórczy produkt jutra, najmadrzejsza ekonomia - do tej pory oparty na patriarchacie, niech będzie stwarzany już nie tyle w oparciu o prawo patriarchatu, lecz nie będzie alternatywny, nowy. W jednym pokoju zebrali się aktorzy świata, a oni są zawsze inni. Wtedy rola detali jest olbrzymia i ważna na całe życie. Zdrowa ekonomia, 25 spotkanie ekonomistów świata. Równe szanse, podstawy do rozwoju dla wszystkich państw. A mój kraj jako pierwszy w tych szansach rozwojowych. Solidarności trzeba między większymi i mniejszymi przedsiębiorstwami. Rynek ponad państwem najczęściej, trzeba by rynek stał się mniej imperialistyczny. Na drodze budowania wspaniałego budżetu życzę kochanym Czytelnikom wielkiego szczęścia.
18:49, sbarszczak , CV
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niedziela, 05 listopada 2017
Rozmowy Polaków
Stanisław Barszczak, Przestrogi dla Polski. Przepraszam bardzo, errare humanum est. Błądzić jest rzeczą ludzką. Proszę moją refleksję uznać za głos w dyskusji tylko... Istotnie to powinnna być uwertura do 21 stulecia albo conajmniej panorama epoki. Odnośnie mojej wizyty w Szwajcarii, powinien powstać album podróżnika… Tak, wiara nie zwyciężyła jeszcze w moim życiu. Bo nie byłem wyrafinowany i z kompleksami. A świat idzie naprzód. Co my na to jako społeczeństwo. Jak byśmy żyli o dwieście lat do przodu. W katastrofalnej demokracji żyjemy. Mamy niebezpieczny rozwój…Pchamy się drzwiami i oknami- byle mieć pracę, nie liczą się dobre maniery. Jesteśmy z kulturą na bakier. Osobiście jestem zafascynowany wieczną pięknością Rzymu, włoską piazza, jak naszymi transparentami i flagą pokazywaną na calym globie. Istnieje tylko jeszcze jedna możliwość do do przedłużenia zycia: rozjarzenić ten totalny cały świat do kochania i sławie Rzymu przydać klientow. Tego mnie nauczył Rzym. Innym razem jakbym obserwował przy użyciu Helikoptera wulkany na Kamczatce. To znów buduję zamki z piasku zakochany w średniowieczu. Wieczorem patrzę jak para zakochanych pływa łódką w parku. Słucham Lacrimosa Mozarta, marsz turecki Mozarta, czekam na marzenia miłosne Liszta. Wpadam na sonate księzycowa Beethovena. A przede mna jeszcze błękitny walc Dunaju Straussa, sarabanda Handla, kompozycje Liszta, preludium, pogrom Hunow, Hamlet,Tasso Orfeusz, Prometeusz, Rapsodie wegierskie, Etiudy transcendentalne... Czy jest świat do uratowania? Czy jesteśmy mądrzy? To nie są pytania ostateczne. Ale demokracja w pierwszej fazie jeszcze...Należało odciąć populację obywateli od demokracji zaledwie w pierwszej fazie jej rozwoju… Mamy finansowy kryzys, olbrzymia negatywna energia teraz… Gdy zapłonął nagle świat, równym rytmem młodych serc w świat szli..Dziś wraca pamięć o tych, nie wszystkim pomógł los.. gdy kwitły bzy. I biały krzyż nie pamięta kto pod nim śpi...Miłość ojczyzny to konserwatywne myślenie. A gdzie zostają uczucia? Dzisiaj erozja emocji. Autorytet nie jest słyszalny. Vacuum - próżnia moralna. Jest mniej odwagi w tym kraju, niezdolność do konstruktywnej dyskusji. W takiej sytuacji rola wyobraźni jest olbrzymia...Media zniekształcają prawdę, ale też mamy wybuch fikcji, czysta informacja nie interesuje nas. Opowiadamy świat synapsami, organami. Wideo odsłania rolę kamery, krwawy obraz świata ludzi i nie tylko. A jeszcze mamy rezerwy w tym niespokojnym czasie. Niebezpieczny rozwój personalny, finansowy. Jakkolwiek uporządkowana gospodarka. Zawędrowałem tym razem do Siofok nad Balaton. Brzegi jeziora były osłonięte przez mgłę. Wydało mi się, że to olbrzymie jezioro w środku Europy jest wielkim morzem. Kolorowa jesień za nami. Wierzę, że przechowasz te muszelke...Skomplikowany nasz świat. Kto myśli o przyszłości? Mamy roszerzający się kriket społeczny... przymus niesienia Monarchii. Straszna grawitacyjna moc codzienności To jest nie do zniesienia. Nie chciałbym być w skórze “Prezydenta Katalonii”. Społeczeństwo nie jest racjonalne. Potrzebujemy nowego ubrania, modnej kurtki, istniejemy w koniunktiwie, vocatiwie. Wspomnijmy Napoleońskie wojny, a zaraz kongres wiedeński...I Prezydent Polski nie jest stary, nie jest korupcyjny, jak wierzę. Ale dzisiaj alternatywna polityka przeważa. A trzeba by wybrać "mniejsze zło" może. Nazizm nie był prawicą. To była Lewica. Jestem poważnie zatroskany o Polskę.Musieliśmy wyjść na ulicę. Cieszyły warszawskie pochody na most Poniatowskiego- ale one nie wystarczają już. Teraz ważny sąd o świecie (niem. Meinung). Społeczeństwo reaguje jakby było po pracy archeolgocznej w Pompejach. Zaledwie pod zerwaniem zewnętrznej skorupy możemy wreszcie coś w nim zauważyć. Ci się z nim dzieje. Autostrady- algorytmy współczesne. Ten kraj w jądrze autorytatywny. To jest katastrofalne. To co widzimy to hipokryzja epoki...Hitlerowcy nie mipli żadnego pojęcia… (okrucieństwo z przemijania). To chemia. Fizyka nigdy nam się nie udała. Mamy biliony win. Jesteśmy zaledwie w pierwszej fazie demokracji. Sąd wolności jest ważny dla podstaw demokracji. Mamy codzienność, śliczny bezsens, coś prawie głupie. Partie żadnych problemów nie podstawiły...To moje podworko, mój dwór -a nie Julii Roberts na przykład. Ludzie zachowują traumatyczne wspomnienia, wojna jeszcze pamiętana. A trzeba wyzwolić ich z marazmu bycia. Powiem tak: nie ma zła teraz (niem.Bösen). Ale jest społeczeństwo. Reagujemy w strukturach społecznych. Jakie mechanizmy motywują ludzi? Zatem pokazuję tutaj nie rzeczywistość, a pewne elementy społeczne- i może ironizuję. Czy nie mieliśmy żadnych szans...by wziąć udział w życiu początku trzeciego tysiąclecia? I ja nie sądzę tak... Ale musielismy rozwiązać dylemat - bezpojeciowosc epoki (niem.Ahnunglos). Trzeba oddalić niektórych ( Portugalie, Italie) od prywatnych inwestycji, wielkich banków. O tak na przykład Niemcy, przy całej otwartości na uchodźców, boją się prywatnych banków. Tak więc jestem za najlepszą formą państwa- demokracją... Przeważyły inne sądy. Euro przyszło za wcześnie. W kinie spolecznym wciąż obligacja kamery... ja nigdy nie dałem sobie okazji, by myśleć o Polsce mojej ojczyźnie źle. W Siofok ujrzałem pewnie największy talent Europy... I napisałem opowieść pt. “Prosty walc albo loża Liszta”. Świat nie może żyć bez nadziei. Stąd trzeba wiary na nowo. Jakkolwiek Jakkolwiek istnieją granice mentalności sam sympatyzuję, osobiście wierzę w sens dziejow. Przedstawiając żaden sens i bezpojeciowosc epoki trzeba by opowiadać poprawnie o tym, co zawsze komiczne w życiu społeczeństwa a niemniej istotne. Jest coraz gorzej, mamy coraz słabsze partie. Euro kryzys. Tabu Polskie powstaje. Generacja Jana Pawla II zabrała duszę młodych. Pytam jeszcze raz jakie mechanizmy nami rządzą? Jakie fakty, struktury. Czy efektowny koniec. Cieszy czasami przy wyborach mobilizacja negatywna osób. Pokarzmy je... Jeszcze są nadzwyczajni ludzie. To pokazuje choćby harmonia w muzyce. Słucham zatem "Walca kwiatów" Czajkowskiego kiedy skreślam dla was te kilka słów. Następnie "Marsza niewolników" jeszcze też. A czytałem ballady Schillera i historię uczuć Katarzyny całych Rosji i Potiomkina. To jest moja panorama naszego czasu. Gdy wiara nie wygrywa. Ciągłe procesy o zniesławienie. Jakie przesłanie moje dla nas: musimy marzyć o lepszym świecie. I powiedziałbym nawet, do zobaczenia w przyszłym świecie. Ale już osobiście muszę wyjść... Niech żyje Rzeczpospolita. Niech żyje Polska. I jeszcze powiem: czas Narodów nadszedł ostatecznie.(fin)
20:13, sbarszczak , CV
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piątek, 03 listopada 2017
I'm going to the little composer's room
Stanislaw Barszczak, A simple waltz or Franz Liszt's compartment (part three) V Rome, Weimar, Budapest (1861-1886) The 1860s were a period of great sadness in Liszt's private life. On December 13, 1859, he lost his 20-year-old son Daniel, and on September 11, 1862, his 26-year-old daughter Blandine also died. In letters to friends, Liszt afterwards announced that he would retreat to a solitary living. He found it at the monastery Madonna del Rosario, just outside Rome, where on June 20, 1863, he took up quarters in a small, Spartan apartment. He had on June 23, 1857, already joined the Third Order of Saint Francis. On April 25, 1865, he received the tonsure at the hands of Cardinal Hohenlohe. On July 31, 1865, he received the four minor orders of porter, lector, exorcist, and acolyte. After this ordination he was often called Abbé Liszt. On August 14, 1879, he was made an honorary canon of Albano. You can follow the footsteps of Franz Liszt in Rome. Going to Castel Gandolfo in the summer for an audience with the Pope, take offi one train station early. There you will meet Liszt's friends. And there I was, honey and wine drunk, though in small quantities... On some occasions, Liszt took part in Rome's musical life. On March 26, 1863, at a concert at the Palazzo Altieri, he directed a programme of sacred music. The "Seligkeiten" of his Christus-Oratorio and his "Cantico del Sol di Francesco d'Assisi", as well as Haydn's Die Schöpfung and works by J. S. Bach, Beethoven, Jommelli, Mendelssohn and Palestrina were performed. On January 4, 1866, Liszt directed the "Stabat mater" of his Christus-Oratorio, and on February 26, 1866, his Dante Symphony. There were several further occasions of similar kind, but in comparison with the duration of Liszt's stay in Rome, they were exceptions.The famous composer was fascinated by the eternal beauty of Rome. There is only one possibility more to extend life: glowing this whole world for a love, and the fame of Rome to give customers. This is what Rome taught me, he had been saying that. In 1866, Liszt composed the Hungarian coronation ceremony for Franz Joseph and Elisabeth of Bavaria (Latin: Missa coronationalis). The Mass was first performed on June 8, 1867, at the coronation ceremony in the Matthias Church by Buda Castle in a six-section form. After the first performance the Offertory was added, and two years later the Gradual. Liszt was invited back to Weimar in 1869 to give master classes in piano playing. Two years later he was asked to do the same in Budapest at the Hungarian Music Academy. From then until the end of his life he made regular journeys between Rome, Weimar and Budapest, continuing what he called his "vie trifurquée" or threefold existence. It is estimated that Liszt travelled at least 4,000 miles a year during this period in his life - an exceptional figure given his advancing age and the rigors of road and rail in the 1870s. Gyula Andrássy made a new attempt writing on 4 June 1871, to the Hungarian King (the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I ), requesting an annual grant of 4,000 Gulden and the rank of a "Königlicher Rat" ("Crown Councillor") for Liszt, who in return would permanently settle in Budapest, directing the orchestra of the National Theatre as well as musical institutions. The plan of the foundation of a Royal Academy was agreed by the Hungarian Parliament in 1872. In March 1875 Liszt was nominated as President. The Academy was officially opened on November 14, 1875 with Liszt's colleague Ferenc Erkel as director, Kornél Ábrányi and Robert Volkmann. Liszt himself came in March 1876 to give some lessons and a charity concert. In spite of the conditions under which Liszt had been appointed as "Königlicher Rat", he neither directed the orchestra of the National Theatre, nor did he permanently settle in Hungary. Typically, he would arrive in mid-winter in Budapest. After one or two concerts of his students by the beginning of spring he left. He never took part in the final examinations, which were in summer of every year. Some of the pupils joined the lessons which Liszt gave in summer in Weimar. In 1873, on the occasion of Liszt's 50th anniversary as performing artist, the city of Budapest instituted a "Franz Liszt Stiftung" ("Franz Liszt Foundation"), to provide stipends of 200 Gulden for three students of the Academy who had shown excellent abilities with regard to Hungarian music. Liszt alone decided the allocation of these stipends. It was Liszt's habit to declare all students who took part in his lessons as his private students. As consequence, almost none of them paid any fees to the Academy. A ministerial order of 13 February 1884 decreed that all those who took part in Liszt's lessons had to pay an annual charge of 30 Gulden. In fact, the Academy was in any case a net gainer, since Liszt donated it revenue from his charity concerts. The first 12 symphonic poems were composed in the decade 1848–58. Liszt's intent to display the traditional logic of symphonic thought. That logic, embodied in sonata form as musical development, was traditionally the unfolding of latent possibilities in given themes in rhythm, melody and harmony, either in part or in their entirety, as they were allowed to combine, separate and contrast with one another. To the resulting sense of struggle, Beethoven had added an intensity of feeling and the involvement of his audiences in that feeling, beginning from the Eroica Symphony to use the elements of the craft of music - melody, bass, counterpoint, rhythm and harmony -in a new synthesis of elements toward this end. Liszt attempted in the symphonic poem to extend this revitalisation of the nature of musical discourse and add to it the Romantic ideal of reconciling classical formal principles to external literary concepts. To this end, he combined elements of overture and symphony with descriptive elements, approaching symphonic first movements in form and scale. While showing extremely creative amendments to sonata form, Liszt used compositional devices such as cyclic form, motifs and thematic transformation to lend these works added coherence. Their composition proved daunting, requiring a continual process of creative experimentation that included many stages of composition, rehearsal and revision to reach a version where different parts of the musical form seemed balanced. With some works from the end of the Weimar years, Liszt drifted more and more away from the musical taste of his time. An early example is the melodrama "Der traurige Mönch" ("The sad monk") after a poem by Nikolaus Lenau, composed in the beginning of October 1860. While in the 19th century harmonies were usually considered as major or minor triads to which dissonances could be added, Liszt took the augmented triad as central chord. More examples can be found in the third volume of Liszt's Années de Pélerinage. "Les Jeux d'Eaux à la Villa d'Este" ("The Fountains of the Villa d'Este"), composed in September 1877, foreshadows the impressionism of pieces on similar subjects by Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. Other pieces such as the "Marche funèbre, En mémoire de Maximilian I, Empereur du Mexique" ("Funeral march, In memory of Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico"), composed in 1867 are, however, without stylistic parallel in the 19th and 20th centuries. At a later stage, Liszt experimented with "forbidden" things such as parallel 5ths in the "Csárdás macabre" and atonality in the Bagatelle sans tonalité ("Bagatelle without Tonality"). Pieces like the "2nd Mephisto-Waltz" are unconventional because of their numerous repetitions of short motives. Also showing experimental characteristics are the Via crucis of 1878, as well as Unstern!, Nuages gris, and the two works entitled La lugubre gondola of the 1880s. Liszt taught his whole life to the students. He offered his students little technical advice, expecting them to "wash their dirty linen at home," as he phrased it. Instead, he focused on musical interpretation with a combination of anecdote, metaphor and wit. He advised one student tapping out the opening chords of Beethoven's Waldstein Sonata, "Do not chop beefsteak for us." To another who blurred the rhythm in Liszt's Gnomenreigen (usually done by playing the piece too fast in the composer's presence): "There you go, mixing salad again." Liszt also wanted to avoid creating carbon copies of himself; rather, he believed in preserving artistic individuality. Liszt did not charge for lessons. Liszt spoke very fondly of his former teacher- who gave lessons to Liszt free of charge- to whom Liszt dedicated his Transcendental Études. Epilogue Liszt fell down the stairs of a hotel in Weimar on July 2, 1881. Though friends and colleagues had noticed swelling in his feet and legs when he had arrived in Weimar the previous month (an indication of possible congestive heart failure), he had been in good health up to that point and was still fit and active. He was left immobilised for eight weeks after the accident and never fully recovered from it. A number of ailments manifested themselves - dropsy, asthma, insomnia, a cataract of the left eye and heart disease. The last-mentioned eventually contributed to Liszt's death. He became increasingly plagued by feelings of desolation, despair and preoccupation with death - feelings that he expressed in his works from this period. As he told Lina Ramann, "I carry a deep sadness of the heart which must now and then break out in sound." On January 13, 1886, while Claude Debussy was staying at the Villa Medici in Rome, Liszt met him there with Paul Vidal and Victor Herbert. Liszt played Au bord d'une source from his Années de pèlerinage, as well as his arrangement of Schubert's Ave Maria for the musicians. Debussy in later years described Liszt's pedalling as "like a form of breathing." Debussy and Vidal performed their piano duet arrangement of Liszt's Faust Symphony; allegedly, Liszt fell asleep during this. The composer Camille Saint-Saëns, an old friend, whom Liszt had once called "the greatest organist in the world", dedicated his Symphony No. 3 "Organ Symphony" to Liszt; it had premiered in London only a few weeks before the death of its dedicatee. Liszt died in Bayreuth, Germany, on July 31, 1886, at the age of 74, officially as a result of pneumonia, which he may have contracted during the Bayreuth Festival hosted by his daughter Cosima. Questions have been posed as to whether medical malpractice played a part in his death. He was buried on August 3, 1886, in the municipal cemetery of Bayreuth against his wishes. I am looking on Franz Liszt now, portrait by Hungarian painter Miklós Barabás, 1847. Then Liszt in 1858 by Franz Hanfstaeng, Liszt, photo by Franz Hanfstaengl, June 1867. I still see in my dreams and sometimes I breathe the atmosphere of the castles from past centuries. I am fascinated by impressionism. So a couple in love floats in a boat across a park…Then I listen to with metronome counting the wedding music: Tchaikovsky flower waltz, march of slaves, Mozart's Lacrimosa, then Turkish march, Liszt's love dreams, Beethoven's Moonlight sonata, the blue Danube waltz Strauss, Handel sarabanda, Liszt compositions,preludes, Hun’s massacre, Hamlet, Tasso, Orpheus, Promoteus, Hungarian rhapsodies, The transcendental study. And it seems to me already a new nation-time has finally come. (fin)
22:04, sbarszczak , CV
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Franz Liszt's concert in the church of Żagań at the wedding
Stanislaw Barszczak, A simple waltz or Franz Liszt's compartment (part two) III With Countess Marie d'Agoult (1833-1842) Already as a mature composer, Liszt "rejected" his religious nature, and became interested in women - as a slender, tall and well-educated musician, with huge blue eyes, he was certainly attractive to the living-room ladies. Through the poet and playwright Alfred de Musset, he met George Sand and Marie d'Agoult - six years older than him, an intelligent and temperate Countess, who fell in love with him. They discussed matters of religion and art. Their love caused a scandal - one year passed before this union was consummated. At the end of April 1834 Liszt made the acquaintance of L’abbé de Lamennais. Under the influence of both, Liszt's creative output exploded. In 1835 the countess left her husband and family to join Liszt in Geneva; Liszt's daughter with the countess, Blandine, was born there on December 18. Liszt taught at the newly founded Geneva Conservatory, wrote a manual of piano technique and contributed essays for the Paris Revue et gazette musicale. In these essays, he argued for the raising of the artist from the status of a servant to a respected member of the community. For the next four years, Liszt and the countess lived together, mainly in Switzerland and Italy, where their daughter, Cosima, was born in Como, with occasional visits to Paris. On May 9, 1839, Liszt's and the countess's only son, Daniel, was born, but that autumn relations between them became strained. Liszt heard that plans for a Beethoven monument in Bonn were in danger of collapse for lack of funds, and pledged his support. Doing so meant returning to the life of a touring virtuoso. The countess returned to Paris with the children, while Liszt gave six concerts in Vienna, then toured Hungary. For the next eight years Liszt continued to tour Europe, spending holidays with the countess and their children on the island of Nonnenwerth on the Rhine in summers 1841 and 1843. In spring 1844 the couple finally separated. This was Liszt's most brilliant period as a concert pianist. Honours were showered on him and he met with adulation wherever he went. Franz wrote his Three Concert Études between 1845 and 1849. Since he often appeared three or four times a week in concert, it could be safe to assume that he appeared in public well over a thousand times during this eight-year period. Moreover, his great fame as a pianist, which he would continue to enjoy long after he had officially retired from the concert stage, was based mainly on his accomplishments during this time. During his virtuoso heyday, Liszt was described by the writer Hans Christian Andersen as a "slim young man...[with] dark hair hung around his pale face". He was seen as handsome by many, with the German poet Heinrich Heine writing concerning his showmanship during concerts: "How powerful, how shattering was his mere physical appearance". In 1841, Franz Liszt was admitted to the Freemason's lodge "Unity" "Zur Einigkeit", in Frankfurt am Main. He was promoted to the second degree and elected master as member of the lodge "Zur Einigkeit", in Berlin. From 1845 he was also honorary member of the lodge "Modestia cum Libertate" at Zurich and 1870 of the lodge in Pest (Budapest-Hungary). After 1842, "Lisztomania" - coined by 19th-century German poet and Liszt's contemporary, Heinrich Heine - swept across Europe. The reception that Liszt enjoyed as a result can be described only as hysterical. Women fought over his silk handkerchiefs and velvet gloves, which they ripped to shreds as souvenirs. This atmosphere was fuelled in great part by the artist's mesmeric personality and stage presence. Many witnesses later testified that Liszt's playing raised the mood of audiences to a level of mystical ecstasy. On 14 March 1842 Liszt received an honorary doctorate from the University of Königsberg - an honour unprecedented at the time, and an especially important one from the perspective of the German tradition. Liszt never used 'Dr. Liszt' or 'Dr. Franz Liszt' publicly. Ferdinand Hiller, a rival of Liszt at the time, was allegedly highly jealous at the decision made by the university. Adding to his reputation was the fact that Liszt gave away much of his proceeds to charity and humanitarian causes. In fact, Liszt had made so much money by his mid-forties that virtually all his performing fees after 1857 went to charity. While his work for the Beethoven monument and the Hungarian National School of Music are well known, he also gave generously to the building fund of Cologne Cathedral, the establishment of a Gymnasium at Dortmund, and the construction of the Leopold Church in Pest. There were also private donations to hospitals, schools and charitable organizations such as the Leipzig Musicians Pension Fund. When he found out about the Great Fire of Hamburg, which raged for three days during May 1842 and destroyed much of the city, he gave concerts in aid of the thousands of homeless there. Besides his musical works, Liszt wrote essays about many subjects. Most important for an understanding of his development is the article series "De la situation des artistes" ("On the situation of artists") which was published in the Parisian Gazette musicale in 1835. In winter 1835–36, during Liszt's stay in Geneva, about half a dozen further essays followed. Then during the Weimar years, Liszt wrote a series of essays about operas, leading from Glück to Wagner. Liszt also wrote essays about Berlioz and the symphony Harold in Italy, Robert and Clara Schumann, John Field's nocturnes, songs of Robert Franz, a planned Goethe foundation at Weimar, and other subjects. In addition to essays, Liszt wrote a biography of his fellow composer Frédéric Chopin, Life of Chopin, as well as a book about the Romanis (Gypsies) and their music in Hungary. While all of those literary works were published under Liszt's name, it is not quite clear which parts of them he had written himself. It is known from his letters that during the time of his youth there had been collaboration with Marie d'Agoult. During the Weimar years it was the Princess Wittgenstein who helped him. In most cases the manuscripts have disappeared so that it is difficult to determine which of Liszt's literary works were actually works of his own. Until the end of his life, however, it was Liszt's point of view that it was he who was responsible for the contents of those literary works. Liszt also worked until at least 1885 on a treatise for modern harmony. Pianist Arthur Friedheim, who also served as Liszt's personal secretary, remembered seeing it among Liszt's papers at Weimar. Liszt told Friedheim that the time was not yet ripe to publish the manuscript, titled Sketches for a Harmony of the Future. Unfortunately, this treatise has been lost. Liszt was sometimes mocked in the press for facial expression and gestures at the piano. The spouses about that and their family spoke during on the island of Nonnenwerth on the Rhine in summers 1841. Countess Marie d'Agoult: Don't worry, we will always be together. Franz Liszt: That's what Caroline de Saint- Cricq said... In spring 1844 the couple finally separated. There were the extravagant liberties Liszt could take with the text of a score at this time. Berlioz tells us how Liszt would add cadenzas, tremolos and trills when playing the first movement of Beethoven's Moonlight Sonata, and created a dramatic scene by changing the tempo between Largo and Presto. In his Baccalaureus letter to George Sand from the beginning of 1837, Liszt admitted that he had done so for the purpose of gaining applause, and promised to follow both the letter and the spirit of a score from then on. His performance commenced with Handel's Fugue in E minor for exemple, which was played by Liszt with an avoidance of everything approaching to meretricious ornament, and indeed scarcely any additions, except a multitude of ingeniously contrived and appropriate harmonies, casting a glow of colour over the beauties of the composition, and infusing into it a spirit which from no other hand it ever before received. During his years as a travelling virtuoso, Liszt performed an enormous amount of music throughout Europe, but his core repertoire always centered around his own compositions, paraphrases and transcriptions. Of Liszt's German concerts between 1840 and 1845, the five most frequently played pieces were the Grand galop chromatique, Schubert's Erlkönig (in Liszt's transcription), Réminiscences de Don Juan, Réminiscences de Robert le Diable, and Réminiscences de Lucia di Lammermoor. Among the works by other composers were Weber's Invitation to the Dance, Chopin mazurkas, études by composers like Ignaz Moscheles, Chopin and Ferdinand Hiller, but also major works by Beethoven, Schumann, Weber and Hummel, and from time to time even selections from Bach, Handel and Scarlatti. Most of the concerts at this time were shared with other artists, and as a result Liszt also often accompanied singers, participated in chamber music, or performed works with an orchestra in addition to his own solo part. Frequently played works include Weber's Konzertstück, Beethoven's Emperor Concerto and Choral Fantasy, and Liszt's reworking of the Hexameron for piano and orchestra. His chamber music repertoire included Johann Nepomuk Hummel's Septet, Beethoven's Archduke Trio and Kreutzer Sonata, and a large selection of songs by composers like Gioacchino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Beethoven and especially Franz Schubert. At some concerts, Liszt could not find musicians to share the program with, and consequently was among the first to give solo piano recitals in the modern sense of the word. The term was coined by the publisher Frederick Beale, who suggested it for Liszt's concert at the Hanover Square Rooms in London on June 9, 1840, even though Liszt had given concerts all by himself already by March 1839. Liszt's piano works are usually divided into two categories. On the one hand, there are "original works", and on the other hand "transcriptions", "paraphrases" or "fantasies" on works by other composers. He preferred to play either on a Bösendorfer or C. Bechstein piano, since they were the only instruments capable of withstanding his tremendously powerful playing. In the mid-19th century, orchestral performances were much less common than they are today, and were not available at all outside major cities, so Liszt's transcriptions played a major role in popularising a wide array of music such as the symphonies of Beethoven. Liszt wrote his two largest organ works between 1850 and 1855 while he was living in Weimar, a city with a long tradition of organ music, most notably that of J.S. Bach. Franz Liszt composed about six dozen original songs with piano accompaniment. In most cases the lyrics were in German or French, but there are also some songs in Italian and Hungarian and one song in English. Liszt, in some of his works, supported the relatively new idea of programme music - that is, music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas such as a depiction of a landscape, a poem, a particular character or personage. By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world. IV Liszt in Weimar (1842-1861) This is a song without end, Woronince, Ukraine (Feb 1847- Jan 1848). In February 1847, Liszt played in Kiev. There he met the Polish Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, who was to become one of the most significant people in the rest of his life. Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein has been in a relationship with Franz Liszt (Feb1847-Oct 1861). Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein and Franz Liszt have been engaged for 1 year. They started dating in Feb 1847 and after 13 years were engaged in Sep 1860. Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (February 8, 1819 - March 9, 1887) was a Polish noblewoman who pursued a forty-year liaison/relationship with Franz Liszt. She was also an amateur journalist and essayist and it is conjectured that she did much of the actual writing of several of Liszt's publications, especially his Life of Chopin. She pursued an enormous correspondence with Liszt and many others which is of vital historical interest. She admired and encouraged Hector Berlioz, as is clear from their extensive correspondence. Berlioz dedicated Les Troyens to Princess Carolyne. In February 1847, Liszt played in Kiev. There he met the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, who was to become one of the most significant people in the rest of his life. She persuaded him to concentrate on composition, which meant giving up his career as a travelling virtuoso. After a tour of the Balkans, Turkey and Russia that summer, Liszt gave his final concert for pay at Elisavetgrad in September. He spent the winter with the princess at her estate in Woronince. Princess Carolyne lived with Liszt during his years in Weimar. She eventually wished to marry Liszt, but since she had been previously married and her husband, Russian military officer Prince Nikolaus zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Ludwigsburg (1812–1864), was still alive, she had to convince the Roman Catholic authorities that her marriage to him had been invalid. After huge efforts and a monstrously intricate process, she was temporarily successful (September 1860). It was planned that the couple would marry in Rome, on October 22, 1861, Liszt's 50th birthday. Liszt having arrived in Rome on October 21, 1861, the Princess nevertheless declined, by the late evening, to marry him. It appears that both her husband and the Tsar of Russia had managed to quash permission for the marriage at the Vatican. The Russian government also impounded her several estates in the Polish Ukraine, which made her later marriage to anybody unfeasible. Subsequently, her relationship to Liszt became one of platonic companionship, especially after he had received minor orders in the Catholic Church and become an abbé. She was devastated by Liszt's death and survived him only a very few months. She died in Rome on March 9, 1887. Franz Liszt turns into a composer's bar, where you see one of the pianos from his apartment, I'm outta here, he said. Then in his apartment Liszt at night was still working on the suite of Podolia, Glanes de Woronince (Gleanings from Woronińce, or Harvest at Woronińce). This is a suite of three piano pieces by Franz Liszt, written in 1847 at Voronovycia, the Ukrainian estate of Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein in Ukrainian Podolia. Liszt had first met the Princess when he played in Kiev on 14 February of that year (Valentine's Day). She was recently separated from her husband, and she invited Liszt to spend some time on her estate in Podolia. In Woronince he stayed for 10 days, then left for a concert tour, promising to return in the autumn. He came back around 18 September, and stayed till early January 1848. It was during these three months that Liszt's and Sayn-Wittgenstein's relationship developed to the stage that she planned to petition the Tsar for divorce, and marry Liszt. During this time, Liszt also completed much of his Harmonies poétiques et religieuses. The three pieces of Gleanings from Woronince are: Ballade d'Ukraine, a dumka, Mélodies polonaises, two Polish folk songs, the second of which was previously used by Frédéric Chopin in his song The Maiden's Wish, and Complainte, another dumka. They were dedicated to Princess Carolyne's daughter, Princess Marie von Sayn-Wittgenstein. Liszt also wrote a transcription for piano solo of Chopin's The Maiden's Wish in his Six Chants polonais, but in conception it is quite a different piece from its appearance in Glanes de Woronince. So, during this September meeting Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein persuaded him to concentrate on composition, which meant giving up his career as a travelling virtuoso. After a tour of the Balkans, Turkey and Russia that summer, Liszt gave his final concert for pay at Yelisavetgrad in September. He spent the winter with the princess at her estate in Woronince. By retiring from the concert platform at 35, while still at the height of his powers, Liszt succeeded in keeping the legend of his playing untarnished. The following year, Liszt took up a long-standing invitation of Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia to settle at Weimar, where he had been appointed Kapellmeister Extraordinaire in 1842, remaining there until 1861. During this period he acted as conductor at court concerts and on special occasions at the theatre. He gave lessons to a number of pianists, including the great virtuoso Hans von Bülow, who married Liszt's daughter Cosima in 1857 (years later, she would marry Richard Wagner). He also wrote articles championing Berlioz and Wagner. Finally, Liszt had ample time to compose and during the next 12 years revised or produced those orchestral and choral pieces upon which his reputation as a composer mainly rested. So, during those twelve years, he also helped raise the profile of the exiled Wagner by conducting the overtures of his operas in concert, Liszt and Wagner would have a profound friendship that lasted until Wagner's death in Venice in 1883. Wagner held strong value towards Liszt and his musicality, once rhetorically stating "Do you know a musician who is more musical than Liszt?", and in 1856 stating "I feel thoroughly contemptible as a musician, whereas you, as I have now convinced myself, are the greatest musician of all times." Princess Carolyne lived with Liszt during his years in Weimar. She eventually wished to marry Liszt, but since she had been previously married and her husband, Russian military officer Prince Nikolaus zu Sayn-Wittgenstein - Ludwigsburg (1812–1864), was still alive, she had to convince the Roman Catholic authorities that her marriage to him had been invalid. After huge efforts and a monstrously intricate process, she was temporarily successful (September 1860). It was planned that the couple would marry in Rome, on October 22, 1861, Liszt's 50th birthday. Although Liszt arrived in Rome on October 21, the Princess declined to marry him that evening. It appears that both her husband and the Tsar of Russia had managed to quash permission for the marriage at the Vatican. The Russian government also impounded her several estates in the Polish Ukraine, which made her later marriage to anybody unfeasible. In July 1854 Liszt stated in his essay about Berlioz and Harold in Italy that not all music was programme music. If, in the heat of a debate, a person would go so far as to claim the contrary, it would be better to put all ideas of programme music aside. But it would be possible to take means like harmony, modulation, rhythm, instrumentation and others to let a musical motif endure a fate. In any case, a programme should be added to a piece of music only if it was necessarily needed for an adequate understanding of that piece. In a letter to Marie d'Agoult of November 15, 1864, Liszt wrote: “Without any reserve I completely subscribe to the rule of which you so kindly want to remind me, that those musical works which are in a general sense following a programme must take effect on imagination and emotion, independent of any programme. In other words: All beautiful music must be first rate and always satisfy the absolute rules of music which are not to be violated or prescribed.” Die Hunnenschlacht, as painted by Wilhelm von Kaulbach, which in turn inspired one of Liszt's symphonic poems. A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extramusical program provides a narrative or illustrative element. This program may come from a poem, a story or novel, a painting, or another source. The term was first applied by Liszt to his 13 one-movement orchestral works in this vein. They were not pure symphonic movements in the classical sense because they dealt with descriptive subjects taken from mythology, Romantic literature, recent history or imaginative fantasy. In other words, these works were programmatic rather than abstract. The form was a direct product of Romanticism which encouraged literary, pictorial and dramatic associations in music. It developed into an important form of programme music in the second half of the 19th century...Still other women showed up in Liszt's mature life. Marie Dolores, Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, Countess of Landsfeld (17 February 1821- 17 January 1861), better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish dancer and actress who became famous as a "Spanish dancer", courtesan, and mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, who made her Countess of Landsfeld. She used her influence to institute liberal reforms. At the start of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, she was forced to flee. She proceeded to the United States via Switzerland, France and London, returning to her work as an entertainer and lecturer. Lola Montez and Franz Liszt have been dating since 1844. In 1844, Lola made an unsuccessful Parisian stage debut as a dancer in Fromental Halévy's opera, Le lazzarone. She met and had an affair with Franz Liszt, who introduced her to the circle of George Sand. From 1869 to 1871, the great and renowned composer Franz Liszt had a pupil called Olga Janina. She studied under him for almost three years and was one of his best pupils. Liszt held her in very high regard, and often complimented her piano skills. However, Olga was a bit weird for her time. Most notably, she was often seen with weird and then unknown substances, as well as babbling about “atheism” and “women’s rights”. What’s more, she was quickly revealed to be deeply depressed and suicidal, as well as having a very unsettling personal obsession with Liszt. There was correspondence between Liszt and his pupils Olga Janina. to be continued
21:58, sbarszczak , CV
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very important four years in the priest's life
Stanislaw Barszczak, A simple waltz or Franz Liszt's compartment Persons: Anna Liszt, a mother Adam Liszt, a father Franz Liszt, virtuoso pianist Antonio Salieri, the music director of the Viennese court, the Abbé de Lamennais Caroline de Saint-Cricq Countess Marie d'Agoult Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein Lola Montez Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann Victor Hugo, Heinrich Heine and others Introduction It should be an overture to the 21st century or at least a panorama of the epoch. From my travel to Geneva, journey to the world of people, and through Switzerland to Frankfurt, it should have set up a traveler's album. But the faith did not win yet. We have closed windows, we also close doors sometimes.Do not count good manners. We are with the culture on the side. As if we were for the future only. As if would we live in 2223. In a catastrophic democracy we live. We have a dangerous development. Pope Francis is without character. However, I’m still eating organic food. At this point I would say, I should go, you make me sick (sic!). Though I watch using helikopter volcanoes on Kamchatka. I'm a writer and, therefore, automatically a suspicious character, but believe me. I also but occasionally watch in the circus for shows on the lines... acrobatic figures, brilliant work. As a result of social studies of the epoch, you have this story. And only the story of the great virtuosity of the piano could have been written, might born here. Although people live among us. Extraordinary people. Acrobatic so far so good. Perfection performing, good presentation, courage. My message for you - you have to dream too… Franz Liszt, the hero of this story, has spent his whole life dreaming. And he succeeded in a hundred percent. Mournful and yet grand is the destiny of the artist, I do not think so. Liszt was not sophisticated or complex.The investigation into his case has been repeated afresh, the process is being pursued, is going on. Listen to this story for your benefit and your children. Let also your dreams come true, I wish you well. Franz Liszt is very well known Hungarian priest from the nineteenth century. Few know that he was also a composer. Ferenc Liszt (1811-1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, and Alexander Borodin. As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School. He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated many 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable musical contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, and making radical departures in harmony. I The lovely village of Raiding Franz Liszt was born to Anna Liszt (née Maria Anna Lager) and Adam Liszt on October 22, 1811, in the village of Doborján (German: Raiding) in Sopron County, in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire. Liszt's father played the piano, violin, cello and guitar. He had been in the service of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy and knew Haydn, Hummel and Beethoven personally. At age six, Franz began listening attentively to his father's piano playing. Franz was "pale and sickly", but despite this, he practiced for hours on the piano, and was soon recognized as a wonderful child. Liszt liked national Hungarian and Gypsy music. Adam contrabassist began teaching a son the piano at age seven, and Franz began composing in an elementary manner when he was eight. At the age of 9, his first concert took place, Chopin found himself at this concert. He appeared in concerts at Sopron and Pressburg (Hungarian: Pozsony, present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in October and November 1820. The boy strives to live because he does not know another life. Liszt had imagination. In one room the actors of the world gathered, and they are always different. Then the role of detail is enormous and important for the whole life. After the concerts, a group of wealthy sponsors offered to finance Franz's musical education in Vienna. There Liszt received piano lessons from Carl Czerny, who in his own youth had been a student of Beethoven and Hummel. He also received lessons in composition from Ferdinando Paer and Antonio Salieri, who was then the music director of the Viennese court. Liszt's public debut in Vienna on December 1, 1822, at a concert at the "Landständischer Saal", was a great success. He was greeted in Austrian and Hungarian aristocratic circles and also met Beethoven and Schubert. In spring 1823, when his one-year leave of absence came to an end, Adam Liszt asked Prince Esterházy in vain for two more years. Adam Liszt therefore took his leave of the Prince's services. Towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszt's first composition to be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli. This anthology, commissioned by Anton Diabelli, includes 50 variations on his waltz by 50 different composers. "An 11 year old boy, born in Hungary" was almost certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher and also a participant. Liszt was the only child composer in the anthology. The young virtuoso, however, exceeded his career-15-year-old Liszt survived a nervous breakdown. He was taken to Boulogne, where he was to take hot baths to calm himself - it was then 1826, and his father, at the age of 51, died of typhoid fever. The critics have opined: "Perhaps [Liszt] was not the most transcendent virtuoso who ever lived, but his audiences thought he was." Performing style by Liszt. There are few, if any, good sources that give an impression of how Liszt really sounded from the 1820s. Carl Czerny claimed Liszt was a natural who played according to feeling, and reviews of his concerts especially praise the brilliance, strength and precision in his playing. At least one also mentions his ability to keep absolute tempo, which may be due to his father's insistence that he practice with a metronome. His repertoire at this time consisted primarily of pieces in the style of the brilliant Viennese school, such as concertos by Hummel and works by his former teacher Czerny, and his concerts often included a chance for the boy to display his prowess in improvisation. Liszt possessed notable sight-reading skills. I am looking at the picture on the wall, Franz Liszt Fantasizing at the Piano (1840), by Danhauser, commissioned by Conrad Graf. The imagined gathering shows seated Alfred de Musset or Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, Franz Liszt, Marie d'Agoult; standing Hector Berlioz or Victor Hugo, Niccolò Paganini, Gioachino Rossini; a bust of Beethoven on the grand piano (a "Graf"), a portrait of Lord Byron on the wall, a statue of Joan of Arc on the far left. I thought aloud. Following the death of Liszt's father in 1827 and his hiatus from the life as a touring virtuoso, it is likely Liszt's playing gradually developed a more personal style. M. Liszt's playing contains abandonment, a liberated feeling, but even when it becomes impetuous and energetic in his fortissimo, it is still without harshness and dryness. He draws from the piano tones that are purer, mellower and stronger than anyone has been able to do; his touch has an indescribable charm. He is the enemy of affected, stilted, contorted expressions. Most of all, he wants truth in musical sentiment, and so he makes a psychological study of his emotions to convey them as they are. Thus, a strong expression is often followed by a sense of fatigue and dejection, a kind of coldness, because this is the way nature works, a mother of one of Liszt's pupils in Paris said. II Adolescence in Paris (1827-1835) You know, as far as he was concerned, he became interested in piano music and went on to study music. He learned to play by the most eminent composer of all time Antoni Salieri. Then he was not admitted to the conservatory in Paris. No one was able to get acquainted with his genius, even his father, and Liszt was forced to spoil one of his best pieces, transforming him into a boring Piano Concerto No. 1 in E flat major. Only after such an operation did the artistic community finally recognize him. So, after his father's death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris; for the next five years he was to live with his mother in a small apartment. He gave up touring. To earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition, often from early morning until late at night. His students were scattered across the city and he often had to cover long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and also took up smoking and drinking- all habits he would continue throughout his life. The following year he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles X's minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq. Caroline De Saint-Cricq has been in a relationship with Franz Liszt in 1828. If there was any shyness left in him from his days of teaching Countess Caroline de Saint- Cricq it was well disguised. Her father, however, insisted that the affair be broken off. Liszt fell very ill, to the extent that an obituary notice was printed in a Paris newspaper, and he underwent a long period of religious doubts and pessimism. He again stated a wish to join the Church but was dissuaded this time by his mother. He had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais, who acted as his spiritual father, and also with Chrétien Urhan, a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-Simonists. Urhan also wrote music that was anti-classical and highly subjective, with titles such as Elle et moi, La Salvation angélique and Les Regrets, and may have whetted the young Liszt's taste for musical romanticism. Equally important for Liszt was Urhan's earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer's music. During this period, Liszt read widely to overcome his lack of a general education, and he soon came into contact with many of the leading authors and artists of his day, including Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine and Heinrich Heine. He composed practically nothing in these years. Nevertheless, the July Revolution of 1830 inspired him to sketch a Revolutionary Symphony based on the events of the "three glorious days," and he took a greater interest in events surrounding him. He met Hector Berlioz on December 4, 1830, the day before the premiere of the Symphonie fantastique. Berlioz's music made a strong impression on Liszt, especially later when he was writing for orchestra. He also inherited from Berlioz the diabolic quality of many of his works. The July Revolution in France in 1830 inspired to present a little-known work, "The Revolutionary Symphony". He believed that "while scientists can only point to the means leading to the goal, artists are committed to proclaiming the ideals to which society should strive". In 1831 Liszt met Paganini, and was fascinated by his violin playing, he decided to become "Paganini of the piano." After attending an April 20, 1832, charity concert, for the victims of a Parisian cholera epidemic, organised by Niccolò Paganini, Liszt became determined to become as great a virtuoso on the piano as Paganini was on the violin. Paris in the 1830s had become the nexus for pianistic activities, with dozens of pianists dedicated to perfection at the keyboard. This generation solved some of the most intractable problems of piano technique, raising the general level of performance to previously unimagined heights. Liszt's strength and ability to stand out in this company was in mastering all the aspects of piano technique cultivated singly and assiduously by his rivals. In 1833 he made transcriptions of several works by Berlioz, including the Symphonie fantastique. His chief motive in doing so, especially with the Symphonie, was to help the poverty-stricken Berlioz, whose symphony remained unknown and unpublished. Liszt bore the expense of publishing the transcription himself and played it many times to help popularise the original score. He was also forming a friendship with a third composer who influenced him, Frédéric Chopin; under his influence Liszt's poetic and romantic side began to develop. Liszt's own point of view regarding programme music can for the time of his youth be taken from the preface of the Album d'un voyageur (1837). According to this, a landscape could evoke a certain kind of mood. Since a piece of music could also evoke a mood, a mysterious resemblance with the landscape could be imagined. In this sense the music would not paint the landscape, but it would match the landscape in a third category, the mood. (to be continued)
21:16, sbarszczak , CV
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sobota, 28 października 2017
w katastrofalnej demokracji żyjemy
(Odchodzisz bezpretensjonalnie, wiedz nie jesteś sama) -Wychodzisz... -Ale w moim sercu nie ma nic, Poza kilku tygodniami spodziewania się czegoś -Wychodzisz... -Moje radości, moje marzenia, To niemożliwe, żeby były przez Ciebie mylone -Wychodzisz... -Nasza miłość jest naszą, Nikt nie mógłby jej przejąć -Wychodzisz... -Czasami oddalenie pomaga, Aby lepiej pokochać się, lepiej zrozumieć siebie -Wychodzisz... Jak słońce, które znika Jak lato, jak niedziela Obawiam się zimy i zimna, Obawiam się braku, pustki nieobecności -Wychodzisz... -Jak mi się zdaje ptaki nie śpiewają już, Świat to nic innego jak obojętność, Obawiam się o ciebie, boję się mnie, Obawiam się, że nadejdzie cisza -Idziesz W moim sercu nie ma nic, po prostu wyjazd bez znaczenia -Idziesz -To moje serce, wiesz o tym, To tylko kaprys egzystencji -Idziesz Czas, przestrzeń, są niczym, Jeśli zachowasz dla mnie wierność Idziesz, Każdego ranka, o tym wiesz, Jeszcze (wreszcie) wszystko zaczyna się od nowa -Idziesz Zostaję sam i zgubiony, jak w najgorszych godzinach dzieciństwa. Obawiam się zimy i zimna, Obawiam się braku, pustki nieobecności -Idziesz Nagle dla mnie wszystko się przyciemnia, Świat jest tylko niespójnością -Obawiam się o Ciebie, boję się mnie, Obawiam się, że nadejdzie cisza. (Rozstanie, see Tu t’en vas, za Alain Barriere i Noelle Cordiere, tłum. Stanisław Barszczak)
19:10, sbarszczak , CV
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wtorek, 17 października 2017
Róży mojej tę opowieść przeznaczam, autor
Stanisław Barszczak, Pożegnanie z morzem, (Głosy Nairobi. Zapiski po podróży. Są to miniatury o ulotnych zjawiskach w pewnym wielkim orientalnym mieście. Autor krąży po kenijskich dzielnicach miasta, przejmuje się biedą slumsów Nairobi, oddycha jego osobliwymi zapachami, obserwuje targujących się sprzedających. Innym razem nadciąga noc, pogrążone w mroku pustkowie, wyboista, niemal dzika droga. Angielskie małżeństwo, jadą na przyjęcie, organizowane przez znajomych w rezydencji położonej na środku marokańskiej pustyni...To znów napotkane przeze autora w hostelu polskie dziewczęta, wybierają się na safari w środku Afrykańskiej sawanny, w pobliżu Kilimandżaro. Jest tutaj też dialog autora z kobietą -Arabką, która z arabskiego miasta przenosi nas w świat trudności ekonomicznych współczesnego świata) Nie wyrusza się w świat, pozostawiając za sobą ojczysty zagon, nie mówiąc do widzenia, bez powiedzenia adieu. Kochani Czytelnicy. Chciałbym wyrazić zatem wpierw pasję do podróżowania w nowy sposób, tym samym skreślić coś, kochanym Czytelnikom, o ostatniej podróży do Arabii Saudyjskiej i Kenii. A następnie powiedzieć do widzenia pierwszym miłościom autora, tym którzy już odeszli, zwłaszcza też polskim patriotom i polskiej młodzieży. Żegnajcie, adieu. Może kiedyś spotkamy się za Morzami. Ale po kolei. Tym razem samolotami linii Easy Jet a następnie Arabii Saudyjskiej, z lotniska w Krakowie, poprzez Genewę, Jeddah, Nairobi, przybyłem do Nairobi na kontynencie afrykańskim. Jak zwykle nie obyło się bez przygód związanych z moimi skromnym środkami finansowymi. Ale Wiza nie była droga. Kenya, Republika Kenii, (ang. Republic of Kenya, sua. Jamhuri ya Kenya) jest państwem położonym we wschodniej Afryce nad Oceanem Indyjskim. Graniczy od północy z Somalią (długość granicy 682 km), Etiopią (861 km) i Sudanem Południowym (232 km), od zachodu z Ugandą (933 km), a od południa z Tanzanią (769 km). Zajmuje powierzchnię wynoszącą 582,6 tys. km². W 2013 roku Kenia liczyła 44 mln mieszkańców. Stolicą Kenii jest Nairobi. Językami urzędowymi są: suahili i angielski. Kraj dzieli się na siedem prowincji oraz jeden okręg stołeczny. Walutą jest szyling kenijski (KES). Święto państwowe przypada 12 grudnia, na rocznicę proklamowania niepodległości (1963 rok). Kenia należy do Międzynarodowej Agencji Energii Atomowej, Międzynarodowej Organizacji Pracy, Międzynarodowego Banku Odbudowy i Rozwoju, Międzynarodowego Funduszu Walutowego,Międzynarodowego Trybunału Karnego, Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych, Światowej Organizacji Handlu i Unii Afrykańskiej… Początki osadnictwa sięgają paleolitu. Najdawniejszymi mieszkańcami Kenii są Buszmeni. Pod koniec XV w. do Kenii dotarli Portugalczycy, którzy w XVI i XVII w. zdominowali wybrzeże Kenii, zakładając bazy nadmorskie, administracyjnie podporządkowane Goa. W połowie XIX w. do Kenii przybyli pierwsi podróżnicy i misjonarze z Wielkiej Brytanii (Joseph Thomson) i Niemiec (Johann Ludwig Krapf, Johannes Rebmann). Od 1820 roku flota brytyjska walczyła z handlarzami niewolników u wybrzeży Kenii. W 1882 roku powstało Niemieckie Towarzystwo Kolonizacyjne oraz Brytyjskie Stowarzyszenie Afryki Wschodniej. Wykorzystując konflikty plemienne Brytyjczycy i Niemcy umacniali swoje wpływy w Kenii. 12 grudnia 1963 roku Kenia uzyskała niepodległość, przystępując do brytyjskiej Wspólnoty Narodów i Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych. W 1964 roku pierwszym premierem Kenii został Kenyatta. Kenia jest krajem chrześcijańskim, republiką i członkiem brytyjskiej Wspólnoty Narodów. Konstytucja została uchwalona w 1964 i była wielokrotnie modyfikowana, ostatnio w 2010 po referendum konstytucyjnym. Podróż apostolska papieża Franciszka do Afryki odbyła się w dniach 25 - 30 listopada 2015 roku. "Weźmy się wszyscy za ręce, jesteśmy jednym narodem” - mówił papież Franciszek w podzielonej przez korupcję Kenii. Kenia od 2013 roku podzielona jest na 47 hrabstw. Nowa konstytucja, która weszła w życie 27 sierpnia 2010 r., zlikwidowała dotychczasowy podział na prowincje, wprowadzając w zamian 47 hrabstw. Kenia jest krajem rolniczym z rozwijającym się przemysłem przetwórczym i usługami. Po recesji z przełomu lat 80. i 90. XX w. Kenia kontynuuje reformy i prywatyzację. Uprawia się kawę, herbatę, sizal, tytoń, piretrum, pszenicę, kukurydzę, sorgo, proso, ziemniaki, bataty, maniok i trzcinę cukrową. W Nairobi jeździłem autobusami, minibusami (tzw. matatu), które są tanim sposobem na poruszanie się po kraju. Obowiązuje ruch lewostronny. Co warto zobaczyć w Kenii? Oprócz malowniczych plaż, niezwykle ciekawe jest miasto Lamu, archipelag na północnym wschodzie kraju -esencja kultury suahili – z wąskimi uliczkami, serdecznymi ludźmi i wszechobecnymi osłami, które są jedynym środkiem transportu w tym miasteczku. Ominąć nie wolno oczywiście parku Masai Mara z milionami zwierząt w jednym miejscu. Podobno czwarte miejsce pod względem atrakcyjności turystycznej na świecie. W jednym miejscu można zobaczyć praktycznie wszystkie zwierzęta Afryki przemieszczające się z Serengeti w Tanzanii do Kenii (i z powrotem) w poszukiwaniu jedzenia. Lwy polujące by zapewnić byt swoim lwim rodzinom, walczące sępy, hieny, szakale...Dech w piersiach zapierają widoki nad jeziorem Turkana na północy Kenii. Zupełnie jakbym znalazł się na boliwijskim Altiplano czy gdzieś w Tybecie... I te kolory ziemi, wody i powietrza...Jezioro Bogoria - tania alternatywa Jeziora Nakuru. Gejzery, gorące źródła i mnóstwo flamingów. Malownicze miejsce Jezioro Baringo. Można tu widzieć hipopotamy, krokodyle i mnóstwo gatunków ptaków (z orłem rybim na czele). Kakamega Forest - jedyna pozostałość lasu deszczowego w Kenii. Warto wybrać się na poranny spacer, żeby zobaczyć wschód słońca. Obowiązkowo podróż nocnym Lunatic Express do Mombassy. Orient Express w Kenii. Ale jeśli ktoś chce zobaczyć Kenię prawdziwą - wtedy obowiązkowo pojechać do Machakos, Kitui, Malaba, Mbitini i Kisasi. Również do slumsów Nairobi (Dandora, Kibera) i do małych miasteczek i wsi, gdzie ludzie żyją ciągle bez internetu, bieżącej wody w kranie i prądu. Gdzie ludzie jakby życzliwsi.Nie można wyjechać z Kenii bez spróbowania ugali, matoke i mokimo. Na wybrzeżu trzeba koniecznie zjeść ryż kokosowy i wypić sok z mango. W wielu miejscach na wybrzeżu (na przykład Watami lub Lamu) można spróbować snorklingu. Na Lamu można także spróbować wind surfingu, ale jest to rozrywka dla osób bogatych. Nie wolno przegapić wyprawy na Mount Kenia i widoku śniegu na równiku na wysokości około 5000 m n.p.m. Kluby i imprezy, dostępne jedynie w Nairobi i na wybrzeżu. Odpoczynek. (dodaj swoje informacje) Nairobi, stolica Kenii, położona w centrum kraju na wysokości 1700 m n.p.m. u podnóża gór Aberdare i źródeł rzeki Athi. Jedno z największych miast Afryki Wschodniej. Główne gałęzie przemysłu to spożywczy, włókienniczy, chemiczny, drzewny i papierniczy. Ważny węzeł drogowy, ma połączenie kolejowe z Mombasą i Kampalą w Ugandzie. Założone w 1899 roku przez Brytyjczyków na terenach Masajów w trakcie budowy linii kolejowej z Ugandy do Mombasy. W roku 1905 stało się stolicą brytyjskiego Protektoratu Afryki Wschodniej, a w roku 1963 niepodległej Kenii. Jest siedzibą szeregu szkół wyższych m.in. Uniwersytetu Strathmore. W pobliżu miasta znajduje się port lotniczy Jomo Kenyatta International Airport. Tam lądowaliśmy i stamtąd udawałem się w drogę powrotną do Europy. Miasto jest jedną z czterech głównych siedzib ONZ na świecie (pozostałe to Nowy Jork, Genewa i Wiedeń), jedyną w kraju rozwijającym się. Gości Sekretariaty Programów Narodów Zjednoczonych ds. Środowiska (UNEP) i ds. Osiedli Ludzkich (UN-Habitat). W 1981 została tu uchwalona Afrykańska Karta Praw Człowieka i Ludów…Podczas podróży do Nairobi zawędrowałem do Ojców Kapucynów (Capuchin Friary, Bogani Road, Langata, Nairobi). Spotkanie z klerykami uważam za bardzo udane. Ale też bywałem u Salezjanów (Upper hill road, Nairobi). Od ponad 30 lat salezjanie zapewniają edukację zawodową i ludzką ludziom młodym w Kenii. Od 25 lat Salezjanie z Nairobi tworzą dom dla dzieci, których codziennością była ulica. Pomagają młodym ludziom. A ostatnio akcja charytatywna „Don Bosco Mission Korr” pomaga ludności dotkniętej głodem, dostarczając pomoc humanitarną. Przechodziłem w pobliżu Kibera w Nairobi. Jest to dzielnica slumsów. To największa dzielnica biedy w Afryce Wschodniej i drugie pod względem wielkości slumsy miejskie na kontynencie. Dzielnica znajduje się ok. 7 km na południowy wschód od centrum Nairobi, a jej szacowana powierzchnia to 2 km². Kibera ma ponad 800 tys. mieszkańców, w tym prawie połowę poniżej 15. roku życia. Szacuje się, że 20% ludności Kibery jest zakażona wirusem HIV. Domy w dzielnicy mają ok. 9 m² ze średnią 5 mieszkańców na budynek. W Kiberze panują bardzo złe warunki sanitarne. Kibera jest podzielona na 13 wiosek. Akcja na rzecz dzieci potrzebujących “Bosco Boys”, realizowany w Kuwinda i Langata, miała przed rokiem swój dzień wspólnotowy. Święto rozpoczęło się folklorystycznym powitaniem dyrektora dzieła, a potem było kontynuowane czasem modlitwy oraz różnymi grami i zajęciami sportowymi, w których uczestniczyły dzieci i młodzież. W ten sposób młodzież przygotowuje się do przyszłego życia w społeczeństwie. Wielka liczba dzieci i kenijskich rodzin, mieszka w skrajnej nędzy, potrzebują natychmiastowej pomocy... Przed kilkoma dniami czytałem współczesnych pisarzy francuskich, Jeana d' Aillon i Huberta Mingarelli. Ten ostatni urodził się w Mont-Saint-Martin w Lorraine. Po trzech latach służby w marynarce, osiadł w mieście Grenoble. W 2003 roku wygrał Prix Medici za nową powieść ‘Czterech Żołnierzy’. Angielskie tłumaczenie jego powieści ‘Posiłek w zimie’ (fr. Un repas en hiver, ang. Meal in winter) zostało nominowane do Independent Independent Foreign Fiction Prize. Ponieważ szybkimi krokami zbliża się polska zima nie polecałbym jej kochanym Czytelnikom. Ale treść jest ciekawa. Pewnego ranka, zima akurat zbiera swoje najwyższe żniwo, na mroźną polskę wieś zostało wysłanych trzech niemieckich żołnierzy. Zostali zobowiązani przez ich dowódców do ścigania i sprowadzenia dla egzekucji "jednego z nich" - Żyda. Po wypuszczeniu młodego człowieka ukrywającego się w lesie, decydują się na odpoczynek w opuszczonym domu, zanim będą kontynuować podróż do obozu. Przygotowując jedzenie, dołączył do nich przechodzący tą samą drogą Polak, którego otwarty antysemityzm zwiększa jeszcze napięcie w podminowanej atmosferze. Wkrótce sympatie grupy zostają rozdzielone, bo oto rozważają moralne implikacje ich morderczej i zabójczej misji i skonfrontują własne sumienia, zadając sobie pytanie: czy powinien być ofiarowany Żydowi pokarm? I czy po podzieleniu się posiłkiem, gdyby on go wziął, czy powinien on być uwolniony? Wydaje mi się, iż miłość chrześcijańska nie jedno ma imię... Pewnego dnia na Krapanji w Chorwacji odkrywając ruiny kościółka zrozumiałem jak myślę bieg dziejów. Przeszedłem wzdłuż cmentarza ku tej starej zapomnianej wsi. Skądinąd wiem, że to miejsce tylko śpi. Odzyska skrzydła. A wieś jest starym kafelkiem. Dlatego przekazuję ją w ręce tkliwości. Odwołuję się do młodzieży. Z małej, zapomnianej wsi niech słyszą muzykę na całym świecie. To jest jak modlitwa. Jeśli kochasz kamień. Muzyka zaczyna żyć. I wieś jest zbawiona...A wracając do sceny z książki Huberta Mingarelli ego, w tej gospodzie wówczas mogliby znaleźć się również młodzi Polacy, choćby para nastolatków… Ich dialog byłby tutaj bardzo interesujący. - Jeszcze widzę, jak pociąg odjeżdża, a ty nie przestajesz ocierać łzy. Ale przecież ja wrócę, bo jak możliwy jest rok bez ciebie. Już ci napisałem, że czas oczekiwania szybko minie. Jeden rok nie jest stuleciem, powrócę, jak trudno być bez ciebie. Ty jesteś, jesteś moim życiem. Jaka tęsknota, nostalgia za tobą. Od kiedy wyjechałaś, zaczęła się dla mnie samotność. Powrót do siebie jest wspomnieniem pięknych dni naszej miłości. Róża, którą mi zostawiłaś już uschła. Ale trzymam ją w książce, której nigdy nie przestanę czytać. Powtarzam ci raz jeszcze, że chcę tylko dobra dla ciebie. Kocham cię. Myśl o mnie, wiedz, że czas szybko mija, a ja powrócę, wrócę. Ty jesteś moim życiem, miłością, moją miłością. Jaka nostalgia być bez ciebie. Ale rok nie jest stuleciem. Powrócę, myśl o mnie, bądź pewna że wrócę, na pewno wrócę… ‘Ze świata czterech stron, z jarzębinowych dróg, gdzie las spalony, wiatr zmęczony, noc i front, gdzie nie zebrany plon, gdzie poczerniały głóg wstaje dzień. Słońce przytuli nas do swych rąk. I spójrz: ziemia ciężka od krwi, znowu urodzi nam zboża łan, złoty kurz. Przyjmą kobiety nas pod swój dach. I spójrz: będą śmiać się przez łzy. Znowu do tańca ktoś zagra nam. Może już za dzień, za dwa, za noc, za trzy, choć nie dziś. Chleby upieką się w piecach nam. I spójrz: tam gdzie tylko był dym, kwiatem zabliźni się wojny ślad, barwą róż. Dzieci urodzą się nowe nam. I spójrz: będą śmiać się, że my znów wspominamy ten podły czas, porę burz. Za dzień, za dwa, za noc, za trzy, choć nie dziś, za noc, za dzień, doczekasz się, wstanie świt,’ śpiewał tak przed laty Edmund Fetting… Znów Maj przyszedł, drzewa uwierzyły w piękno. Jaką przyjemność ma maj. Pozostawiłem moje troski w domu, jak chmury, które wędrują przez niebiański czas. Istotnie jest sens w szerokim świecie. Ojcze, matko, niech Bóg was chroni. Kto wie, gdzie w oddali moje szczęście wciąż rośnie. Jest tak wiele ulic, których nigdy nie przemaszerowałem. Jest tak wiele butelek wina, którego nigdy nawet nie spróbuję. Najczystszego, rozlewanego przy bębnie w jasnym promieniach słońca. Pełnia w górach, pełnia w głębokiej dolinie. Tam serce śpiewa i krzyczy do niebiańskiego namiotu: Jak piękny jesteś, szeroki świecie… Posłuchaj, jak wiatr śpiewa smutną, starą pieśń. On wie, że dzisiaj cię opuszczam.Proszę, nie płacz, bo serce mi pęknie, gdy wyruszę w drogę. Żegnaj, moja kochana, żegnaj, Żegnaj i do widzenia. Jak długo będziesz mnie pamiętać, Nie będę nigdy za daleko. Żegnaj, moja kochana, żegnaj, Zawsze będę ci wierny, Więc zachowaj mnie w swoich marzeniach, Dopóki do ciebie nie wrócę. Spójrz na gwiazdy na niebie ponad nami, Będą one świecić, dokądkolwiek bym zawędrował. Będę się modlił każdej samotnej nocy, aby wkrótce zaprowadziły mnie do domu. Żegnaj, moja kochana, żegnaj, Żegnaj i do widzenia. Jak długo będziesz mnie pamiętać, Nie będę nigdy za daleko. Żegnaj, moja kochana, żegnaj, Zawsze będę ci wierny, Więc zachowaj mnie w swoich marzeniach, Dopóki do ciebie nie wrócę… Tego wieczora wiatr wieje od morza, Jest wrzesień, lato przemija, A szczęście jest ulotne Jak kwiaty, które już umierają. Zważając za Tobą nawiedziłem bratnią Grecję. Akropolis - adieu, żegnaj, miłości! Białe róże Ateneum zwiędły. Kochaliśmy się kilka dni: Akropolis - adieu! Tego wieczora jest nasz ostatni wieczór, Jutro rano odjadę. Zostaniesz w mojej pamięci jak szczęście, jak tęsknota. Akropolis - adieu, żegnaj, miłości! Białe róże Ateneum spłowiały. Kochaliśmy się kilka dni: Akropolis - adieu, Akropolis - adieu!... A ty długo nie dajesz znaku życia. Wreszcie Cię posłyszałem, twój głos. Zapomniałam twoje oczy, zapomniałam twoje usta. Nasza ścieżka pod sosnami stoi pusta ( por. słowa Urszula Sipińska) Mam tylko Ciebie… Byłam najładniejsza, kolorowa… krążymy różnymi drogami. Pokazałeś swoje twarze, krzywe lustra. Zapomniałam twoje ręce, pogubiłam twoje słowa…(mamo) A Pani Irena Jarocka wyśpiewywała: Wymyśliłam cię nocą przy blasku świec. Kocha się raz. Więc zostań jeśli chcesz - byś nareszcie się stał. Czy to mój łabędzi śpiew. Nie wiem. A pamiętasz. Przychodziłem codziennie do kościoła...Ale teraz powinno się odbyć spotkanie ostatnie, jeśli miłość ma sens. Za późno do tamtych dni, ty do mnie nie możesz przyjść. Przed kilkunastoma dniami odwiedziłem polskie morze koło Ustki. Pięknie tam, jakbym znalazł mały Gdańsk. Morze ma barwę zieloną. Hej chłopcy, którzy za pracą gonicie po świecie. W kraju drzewa w zieleni toną. Polskie morze ma barwę błękitną, hej chłopcy, w kraju chabry błękitne już kwitną. Patrzcie, morze złociste, a w kraju złoci się zboże na polach. Powróćcie w rodzinne strony. Hej chłopcy. Być może w tej piosence jest uśmiech i łza. Ale to śpiewa wam wędrowny ptak... Od tylu lat nie wracam. Tylko echo na wołanie odpowiada. A do świata jechałem swoją własną drogą. I dawno zgasnął już ogień. Tylko ty przychodzisz do mnie w snach, ukochana. Coraz więcej w moim życiu nie tyle szóstek, ile dwunastek. I niewiele pamiętam z rodzinnych mych stron, najpierwej to pamiętam nasz ogród, skierowany ku cmentarzowi, ale też kościół w dolinie, wieżę i dzwon. I wzgórza tam były i rzeka i las i ktoś, kto powiedział, że kocha się raz. I wiara w to, iż odkryjemy miłość nieznaną. “Dni w słońcu mijały, lecz dzisiaj już wiem, że przeszły, minęły jak podróż, jak sen. O, gwiazdo miłości! Nie zagiń we mgle! O, gwiazdo miłości! Czy poznajesz mnie? Spoglądam na niebo, gdy wstajesz ze snu, i myślę o chłopcu, co kiedyś był mój. Powędruj do niego i spytaj go, czy Pamięta dziewczynę dawnych spotkań swych. Opowiedz mu, gwiazdo, gdy znajdziesz go gdzie, że mówię ci o nim, że samej mi źle. O, gwiazdo miłości! Nie zagiń we mgle! O, gwiazdo miłości! Czy poznajesz mnie? Z włosami w warkoczach od maja po śnieg. Biegałam po łące, radosna jak nikt (pewnie goniąc kormorany). Bo przy mnie był chłopiec w górze byłaś ty La la la la la la. . . O, gwiazdo miłości! Nie zagiń we mgle! O, gwiazdo miłości! Do snu kołysz mnie. Kołysz mnie, kołysz mnie!,” śpiewała Halina Kunicka… Czas nas uczy pogody. Wiele dni, wiele lat. Przez te lata nauczyłem się tego, że nie ja mam siać wiatr, choć jeszcze często to robię… Każdy z nas wraca wspomnieniami do tych wyjątkowych dni, z udanej młodości…Gdzie się podziały tamte prywatki, śpiewał z zapałem Wojciech Gąssowski. To były dni, niezapomniane dni. Tak bardzo chciało się żyć. Uczyłaś mnie wymawiać imię twe. A nawet rzuciłaś dla mnie cały świat! To nieprawda, że nie było mnie tyle lat. Że pokochałem falbanki katalońskich koszul…I wierzę, że jeszcze nieraz spotkamy miłość. Zabije serce, które wie. Choć tych lat nie odda nikt. I gwiazd które spadły… A ty mówisz mi wciąż. Gdy zgubisz szczęście i poznasz życia smak. Powrócisz tu. Zawitasz, choćby na skarpie w Płocku, mój Hermanie. Gdzie twój dom. Zza siedmiu gór i rzek. Gdzie nadwiślański brzeg, by słuchać jak wiosną śpiewa las. Gdzie wierzby pośród pól, gdzie klucze białych chmur. Gdy zdobędziesz wszystko z dalekich stron powrócisz tu... Zatem serce me wyruszyło w krainę marzeń. A ja boję się ciebie, twoich wyznań, twoich spojrzeń. Jak uciec, nie wiem. Wraca tęsknota.Zachodni wiatr spienione goni fale. Gasnący dzień zachodem się rozpalił. Stoimy tak bez słowa, ja i ty. Patrzę w Twoje błękitne oczy. I myślę o tym dokąd zaprowadzisz mnie...Daj dłoń tak bliską i drogą. Nie myśl o mnie źle. Zachodni wiatr rozstajnym naszym drogom, z okrzykiem mew swe pożegnanie śle. Zawisnął mewy krzyk… musimy się rozstać na dłużej. Ale daj mi tysiąc gołębi i milion jaskółek,daj mi moment w czasie. Papierowy księżyc z nieba spadł. Marzy mi się Jokohama, hotel ze szkła… Każdej nocy w moich snach widzę cię, czuję cię. Tak cię znam, z oddali i poprzez przestrzeń między nami, przyszedłeś pokazać się teraz, iść dalej, blisko, daleko. Gdziekolwiek jesteś wierzę, że serce trwa, bije dalej. Ponownie otwórz drzwi, jesteś tutaj w moim sercu, a moje serce będzie trwać i bić dla Ciebie. Miłość może nas dotknąć raz, czy też po raz ostatni, na całe życie. Ale nigdy nie pozwól, żeby ona odeszła. Bo Miłość była, kiedy cię kochałem. Gdy pewnego prawdziwego czasu objąłem cię. W moim życiu zawsze będziemy szli naprzód. Blisko, daleko, gdziekolwiek jesteś, wierzę, że serce trwa i bije dalej. Przez ten jeden jeszcze raz...Posłuchaj jak wiatr śpiewa smutną, starą piosenkę. Wie, że zostawiam cię dzisiaj. Proszę nie płacz, moje serce pęknie. Kiedy idę po mojej drodze. Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia, Żegnaj i au revoir. Tak długo, jak mnie będziesz pamiętać, nigdy nie będę za daleko. Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia. Zawsze będę wierny. Więc trzymaj mnie w swoich snach Aż wrócę do ciebie. Zobacz gwiazdki na niebie powyżej będą jaśnieć wszędzie, gdzie się powłóczę. Będę modlić się każdej nocy samotnej. A one wkrótce wskażą mi drogę do domu. Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia. Żegnaj i au revoir Tak długo, jak mnie pamiętasz nigdy nie będę za daleko, Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia. Zawsze będę wierny. Więc trzymaj mnie w swoich snach Aż wrócę do ciebie. Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia. Żegnaj i au revoir. Tak długo, jak mnie będziesz pamiętać nigdy nie będę za daleko. Żegnaj moja miłość, do widzenia. Zawsze będę wierny. Więc trzymaj mnie w swoich snach aż wrócę do ciebie… Oceany rosną z dnia na dzień, a ja powoli odchodzę szalony. Wtem słyszę twój głos na linii...ale to nie powstrzymuje bólu, gdy nigdy nie widzę cię obok siebie. Jak możemy mówić ‘na wieki’, gdziekolwiek pójdziesz, cokolwiek zrobisz, będę tu czekał na ciebie. Cokolwiek się stanie, albo jak moje serce to złamie, Będę czekał na ciebie. Wziąłem to za pewnik, cały czas tak myślałem, że jakoś to będzie. Naraz słyszę śmiech, smakuję łzy. I nie mogę się zbliżać teraz do ciebie. Och, nie widzisz tego dziecka. Uczyniłaś mnie szalonym. Ale gdziekolwiek pójdziesz, cokolwiek zrobisz, będę tu czekał na ciebie. Cokolwiek to się stanie, Albo jak to moje serce złamie, będę tu czekał na ciebie. Zastanawiam się, jak możemy przetrwać ten romans. Ale skoro w końcu jestem z tobą, skorzystam z okazji. Och, nie widzisz tego dziecka. Uczyniłaś mnie szalonym. Ale gdziekolwiek pójdziesz, cokolwiek zrobisz, będę tu czekał na ciebie. Cokolwiek to się stanie, albo jak moje serce to złamie, będę tu czekał na ciebie. Czekam na ciebie... Mówisz: -Okłamałeś mnie tysiąc razy. A chcesz mieć uczucie wolności. Nikt, jak mówisz, nie złapie cię. Ale to była czysta miłość. Czasami zastanawiam się, dlaczego ty okłamałeś mnie tysiąc razy. Boli mnie to tysiąc razy. Ale poszybowaliśmy tak wysoko. Choć niebo było zajęte. Ty byłeś wiatrem w moich skrzydłach. Śmialiśmy się tak często z tobą. Zrobię to jeszcze raz. Z tobą, dziś wieczorem. Szukam ręki. Szukam ciebie. Czasem w nocy brakuje mi ciebie. Kto obejmie mnie swym ramieniem. Z kim mogę mówić? Moje marzenie. Okłamałeś mnie tysiąc razy. Boli mnie to tysiąc razy. Ale poszybowaliśmy tak wysoko. Choć niebo było zajęte. Ty byłeś wiatrem w moich skrzydłach... Ale zrobię to jeszcze raz z tobą, dziś wieczorem...Chcę tylko Ciebie. Więcej niż kiedykolwiek. Aniżeli mogłabyś o tym wiedzieć. Dlatego spraw, aby moje życzenie się spełniło. Wszystko co chcę na Boże Narodzenie- żebyś w tym czasie była tym kimś, na kogo zawsze czekam… Wierzę, że dzieci są naszą przyszłością. Ucz je dobrze. I niech idą swą drogą. Pokaż im wszelkie piękno. Obdarz je wnętrzem. Daj im poczucie dumy. Wszyscy szukają bohatera. Ludzie potrzebują kogoś, aby podziwiać. Nigdy nie znalazłem nikogo, kto by spełnił moje potrzeby. Samotne miejsce. Więc nauczyłem się polegać na sobie. Zdecydowałem dawno temu nigdy nie chodzić w cieniu nikogo. Zarówno wtedy gdy to się okazałoby porażką lub powodzeniem. Przynajmniej żyłem, jak sądzę niezależnie od tego, co ode mnie zależało. Nie mogą zabrać mojej godności. Bo największa miłość dzieje się we mnie. Znalazłem największą miłość wewnątrz mnie. Największa miłość wydarza się we mnie. Dlatego największą miłością z wszystkich- jest uczyć się kochać siebie! I to jest łatwe do osiągnięcia. Nawet jeśli przez przypadek to specjalne miejsce prowadzi do samotnego miejsca… Zawsze będę cię kochać, Każdego dnia żyję, chcę być. Wydarza się dzień, aby dać wszystko co najlepsze. Jestem tylko jeden. Ale nie sam. Mój najlepszy dzień Jeszcze nie wiem czy nadszedł. Złamałem serce dla każdego zysku, aby spróbować słodkich borowek. Stoję w bólu. Wstawam i upadam. Jednak przez to wszystko pozostaje wiele do zrobienia. Dlatego chcę jednej chwili w czasie! Kiedy byłbym większy od myśli o tym, że będę. Kiedy wszystkie moje sny biją serce. I odpowiedzi są dla mnie wszystkim. Daj mi chwilę czasu, żebym wyruszył z przeznaczeniem. W tym momencie będę się czuł, poczuję wieczność. Jakbym żył. Najlepiej chcę to wszystko. Nie ma czasu. Zrobiłem plany. Teraz stwórz mi szansę, bycia w moich rękach. Daj mi chwilę czasu, śpiewała już Whitney Houston. A Poczuję wieczność. Jesteś zwycięzcą przez całe życie. Jeśli znajdziesz tę chwilę w czasie. Daj mi chwilę czasu...W tym momencie będę wolny...Nie żyjemy bez pożegnania, nie żyjemy bez umierania po trochu. Bez pozostawienia czegoś lub kogoś aby iść dalej… Przyszedłem pożegnać cię. Pamięć, zawsze umiera trochę, chciałem wiedzieć, co mi pozostało z jedynej miłości, która mogła się liczyć. Przyszedłem by pożegnać się z tobą, albo jeśli chcesz, pożegnać się z nami oboma. Jak w dniu, w którym sprawiłaś, że płakałem. Bo powiedziałaś żegnaj na zawsze. Och, to nie twoja wina, wiem o tym. Wiem wszystko, co się wydarzyło, jak poszłaś do twojego ojca i o wszystkim, co mógł ci powiedzieć. Masz skończyć twoje studia, przed tobą twoja praca, twoja przyszłość. Że ta dziewczyna nie jest dla ciebie. Dzisiaj jesteś inną. A wszystko kończy się dobrze. Ale jak mogłem cię kochać? Miałem szesnaście, szesnaście lat. Nie żyjemy bez pożegnania, nie żyjemy bez umierania po trochu. Chciałem zatrzymać czas. Zatrzymać czas, by powiedzieć do widzenia, żegnajcie moje szesnaście lat. Chciałem powiedzieć, żegnajcie moje szesnaście lat. Zanim pójdę, do tego, co mnie jeszcze czeka… I teraz, gdy koniec już bliski i zaczyna się ostatni akt, mój kochany Czytelniku, powiem to jasno. Pokazuję swą sprawę, której jestem pewny. Żyłem pełnią życia, podróżowałem każdą jedną drogą. Ale co najważniejsze robiłem to po swojemu. Żale, miałem ich kilka; lecz znowu, zbyt mało by je pamiętać. Zrobiłem to, co musiałem zrobić. I patrzyłem na to bez pobłażliwości. Planowałem każdy bieg zdarzeń, każdy ostrożny krok wzdłuż powykręcanych dróg także. Ale co najważniejsze robiłem to po swojemu. Tak, były czasy, jestem pewny, że wiedziałaś o tym, gdy brałem więcej kawałków niż mogłem ich przeżuć. Ale mimo to, gdy nadchodziło zwątpienie, pożerałem to wszystko i wypluwałem. Stawiałem wszystkiemu czoła stojąc prosto i robiłem to po swojemu. Kochałem, śmiałem się i płakałem. Miałem swoje spełnienie, dzieliłem się stratą. I teraz, gdy łzy opadły, patrzę na to z rozbawieniem, i pomyśleć: zrobiłem to wszystko. I mogę powiedzieć - nie w nieśmiały sposób. Nie, to nie ja. Ja zrobiłem to po swojemu. Bo czym jest człowiek i co posiada? Jeśli nie jest samym sobą, jest nikim. Mówić rzeczy, które prawdziwie czuję, a nie słowa pełne bojaźni. Elaborat ten pokazuje: przyjąłem ciosy. I robiłem to po swojemu...Gwiazda na którą patrzę, skała, na której stoję, Lider, któremu ufam, Personel, ku któremu idę, Chleb, w którym żyję, Źródło, w którym odpoczywam, Cel, do którego zmierzam. Wszystkim, Panie, ty jesteś! Poza Tobą nie znajduję mocy i odwagi. Bez ciebie, kto by podjął mój ciężar, kto? Czym byłaby dla mnie chwila bez Ciebie. Wiara, nadzieja, miłość. Wszystkim, Panie,ty jesteś! Dlatego będę się zastanawiać nad moją drogą, dopóki dzwonki słyszą i w domu jestem. Raduję się na nowe gongi. Że nic nie mam do przeprowadzenia. Że wszystkim, Panie, ty jesteś! Tego wieczora wiatr wieje od morza, Jest październik, lato przeminęło. A szczęście znów jest ulotne. Jak kwiaty, które umierają. Akropolis - adieu, żegnaj, miłości! Białe róże Ateneum zwiędły. Kochaliśmy się kilka dni: Akropolis - adieu! Tego wieczora jest nasz ostatni wieczór, Jutro rano odjadę. Za morza. Zostaniesz w mojej pamięci jak szczęście, jak tęsknota. Akropolis - adieu, żegnaj, miłości! Białe róże Ateneum spłowiały przecież. Kochaliśmy się kilka dni zaledwie. Akropolis - adieu.
22:09, sbarszczak , CV
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niedziela, 15 października 2017
rare shit cows and goats, barak houses covered with sheet metal, my return to India

Stanislaw Barszczak, the Land of conflict,

The motivation of the author to write the essay might have arisen from the changes that were taking place in our society at the time. My dear readers already know that I visited 56 countries of the world. I here share my passion from my journey to the Saudi Arabia and Kenya. So, this time with Easy Jet and Saudi Arabian airlines with adventures with my modest financial means from Europe I traveled to Kenya, via Cracow, Genewa, Jeddah, Nairobi.

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community (EAC). Its capital and largest city is Nairobi. Kenya's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and further south-east to the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2 (224,445 sq mi), and had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017. The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries. These communities formed the earliest city states. By the 1st century CE, many of the city-states such as Mombasa, Malindi, and Zanzibar began to establish trade relations with Arabs. This led to the increase economic growth of the Swahili states, introduction of Islam, Arabic influences on the Swahili Bantu language, cultural diffusion, as well as the Swahili city-states becoming a member of a larger trade network. The Swahili built Mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states, as well as commercial centres in Persia, Arabia, and even India. Then Portuguese period is being begun. Later on in the 17th century, once the Swahili coast was conquered and came under direct rule of Omani Arabs, the slave trade was expanded by the Omani Arabs to meet the demands of plantations in Oman and Zanzibar. The colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. Incipient imperial rivalry was forestalled when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890. Throughout World War II, Kenya was an important source of manpower and agriculture for the United Kingdom. Kenya itself was the site of fighting between Allied forces and Italian troops in 1940–41 when Italian forces invaded. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well. During the early part of the 20th century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea. In 1952, Princess Elizabeth and her husband Prince Philip were on holiday at the Treetops Hotel in Kenya when her father, King George VI, died in his sleep. The young princess cut short her trip and returned home immediately to take her throne. From October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was in a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. The first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Despite British hopes of handing power to "moderate" local rivals, it was the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta that formed a government. The Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya each came to an end on 12 December 1963 with independence being conferred on all of Kenya. The United Kingdom ceded sovereignty over the Colony of Kenya. The Sultan of Zanzibar agreed that simultaneous with independence for the Colony of Kenya, the Sultan would cease to have sovereignty over the Protectorate of Kenya so that all of Kenya would be one sovereign, independent state. In this way, Kenya became an independent country under the Kenya Independence Act 1963 of the United Kingdom. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December 1964, Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya". So, on 7 October 2017 after landing at Nairobi Airport I immediately noticed a power and control, exemplified in the citizens of Kenya of today. The officers behind the airport were dressed in military uniforms. Then when I was in a hostel like Nairobi, I also could suspect the lives of young ambitious people. At that time I found on the Internet fragments of the book titled “Scarlet Song” novel by Mariama Ba, which focuses on the theme of love, and narrates the story of two youngsters. Ousmane Gueye (a Senegalese) and Mireille (daughter of a French diplomat). The two young people are from highly diverse backgrounds, but are bound together by love. At the beginning of the novel, the reader is introduced to Ousmane Gueye. The writer gives a description of the kind of environment he grew up in - a humble background. Mireille, however, has different experiences in life. As the daughter of a French diplomat, her life is rather fair. Each main part of the novel presents a major milestone for the couple’s relationship. Ousmane Gueye is from a humble Muslim family and has overcome numerous challenges to acquire education. Mireille, on the other hand is from an affluent home, and literally had everything she desired materially, while growing up. Neither the difference in their worlds, nor the animosity arising from both families towards each other, succeeds in drawing them apart. After a separation that lasted for a number of years, the two get married and settle down in Senegal.
The novel, however, ends on a sad note, as Ousmane has an affair with Ouleymatou (a childhood friend). On discovering the double standard life Ousmane is leading, Mireille becomes mentally unstable and kills their young child. She also goes on and stabs Ousmane several times. The story ends with her deportation to France. The novel is set in different locations, among which, the major ones include; Rural African setting, Institution of Higher Learning and Urban environments. Each of the different settings is of significance in the development of the novels’ plot. The writer adopts an Omniscient narrator’s voice throughout the novel. This enables the reader to have an all round view of the events that take place in the novel.The author’s use of language has also enabled her to give the novel an authentic African taste. There are a number of words in the novel, which are written in Arabic. This is an additional attempt at reflecting the culture of the community in focus. Apart from the theme of love, which is the major theme in the novel, other themes that the writer highlights include; racial animosity, traditions versus modernity, Education and Betrayal. As a Feminist writer, she skillfully and artistically illuminated the role of women in the largely patriarchal African society. As Mariama Ba writes from her experiences as an African woman, the majority of women share in her sentiments concerning struggle and recognition of women in Africa. Mariama Ba has been successful in her efforts of informing the reader about the predicament facing different classes of individuals within her society. At the same time ensuring that the reader remains captivated throughout the novel. The end of the novel.

So, on the way from the airport to the center of Nairobi were the districts of Kenyan poverty. Through the small window of the bus I could see the widespread jungle of human everyday. In this way I saw a racial animosity, but also a deeper empathy for human values. At the hostel Manyatta Backpackers and Safaris ltd. I saw an african’s empowerment: evident in the person character of Petrus, whose relationship with Lucy is seen to change, ‘slave-master’ to equals. So, Last Sunday I was celebrating Holy Mass in Capuchin Chapel in Nairobi, see, Capuchin Friary, Bogani Road, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya Nairobi, 24882 Kenya. It was my trip to the west of this enormous city. I was invited to lunch and at the meal I could speak to the students from the heart about my faithfulness to human values. In the week I celebrated Mass in the Salesian Church, see Don Bosco Salesians, Nairobi. Address: Upper Hill Road, Nairobi; City/Town: Nairobi; Telephone Number: 020-2726278. The president of the liturgy was Reverend Father, he was a man of the people. As you may be know Salesian missionaries are helping poor youth and their families through education, nutrition and workforce development in the Kakuma refugee camp and across Kenya. Nearly 45 percent of the population lives in conditions of poverty. In addition, UNICEF notes that while Kenya has free and compulsory education, disadvantaged youth still cannot afford to attend school, resulting in close to 90 percent of children from poor households failing to complete their basic education. In Kenya, homeless youth join “Bosco Boys” programs dedicated to creating positive change. At the Don Bosco Boys center in Kariua, in the heart of Nairobi, a weekend program brings street children together for sporting events and to meet basic needs. At the center in Kuwinda, boys participate in the sports club and acrobats club in addition to academic classes. These sports activities build self-esteem and a sense of belonging, as well as promote healthy lifestyles. The Don Bosco Mission Korr in Kenya provides services also within the Kakuma refugee camp, which was established in 1992 near Kenya’s border with South Sudan. It was a place of refuge for unaccompanied minors fleeing war in what was then southern Sudan. Kakuma is operated by UNHCR, the U.N. refugee agency, with assistance from Salesian missionaries in the country as well as several other humanitarian organizations. The camp offers refugees safety, security and life-saving services such as housing, healthcare, clean water and sanitation. In Kenya, approximately 12,000 children and youth are being served at vocational institutions and schools. For example, in the Bosco Boys program, youth receive training in trades such as carpentry, tailoring, mechanics and tailoring. In addition to class activities, the students take orders from customers and receive payment for jobs well done. In this way, they are not only learning but they are also contributing to the ongoing success of their school. At the Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya, girls and women receive training opportunities and learn about the important role they play in society and the community. The microfinance program funded by UNHCR and Caritas Italiana offers graduates, women and other refugees an opportunity to establish small business ventures using skills learned...
The residents of Nairobi's poor neighborhoods, slum props, I somehow agree and at the same time, disagree with them, but all in all, they are our life and we ought to be aware of them. Kibera (Nubian: Forest or Jungle) is a division of Nairobi Area, Kenya, and neighbourhood of the city of Nairobi, 6.6 kilometres from the city centre.Kibera is the largest slum in Nairobi, and the largest urban slum in Africa. The 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census reports Kibera's population as 170,070, contrary to previous estimates of one or two million people. Other sources suggest the total Kibera population may be 500,000 to well over 1,000,000 depending on which slums are included in defining Kibera. Most of Kibera slum residents live in extreme poverty, earning less than $1.00 per day. Unemployment rates are high. Persons living with HIV in the slum are many, as are AIDS cases. Cases of assault and rape are common. There are few schools, and most people cannot afford education for their children. Clean water is scarce. Diseases caused by poor hygiene are prevalent. A great majority living in the slum lack access to basic services, including electricity, running water, and medical care. The Government initiated a clearance programme to replace the slum with a residential district of high rise apartments, and relocating the residents to these new buildings upon completion. The neighbourhood is divided into a number of villages, including Kianda, Soweto East, Gatwekera, Kisumu Ndogo, Lindi, Laini Saba, Siranga, Makina and Mashimon. What if I am a Literary Gangster? I do not know. But a culture of Kenya, there is a Bridge in Time. And I swear by Apollo and for that place of destiny to defend residents of those villages in the future. As the author of this essay I wanted to achieve an aim in trying to show how the human spirit can overcome insurmountable odds to acquire its desires, and to showcase how overcoming challenges has the potential of contributing to ones’ maturity with regards to their outlook in life... On the eve of my departure from Kenya, the sky was raining.After the departure of Nairobi on October 12, 2017, I flew over Ethiopia and the Red Sea to Jeddah again. Because I was not able to send a telegram to the people of Ethiopia, I would now like to convey to them my warm greetings. I wish them good luck in building the society of tomorrow. In Jeddah I met a woman arab who told me about the troubles of Arab economy in French. An economy, is a goal author’s  journey within? I think not. For the new spring of humanity the crazy traffic on the earth of today, non-conflicting human interests, and commercial thinking of Nairobi inhabitants, it allows to snuff some human hopes for the future of our civilisation.

21:08, sbarszczak
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